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Chapter 7.

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Chapter 7. Earth and The Terrestrial Worlds. Principles of Comparative Planetology. Comparative Planetology is the study of the solar system through examining and understanding the similarities and differences among the planets. Planetary Geology:
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Section 7 Earth and The Terrestrial Worlds

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Principles of Comparative Planetology Comparative Planetology is the investigation of the close planetary system through analyzing and comprehension the likenesses and contrasts among the planets. Planetary Geology: The investigation of surface components and the procedures that make them is called geography. Today, we talk about planetary topography, the augmentation of geography to incorporate all the strong bodies in the nearby planetary group.

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Viewing the Terrestrial Worlds Spacecraft have gone to and captured the greater part of the earthly universes. Some have even been arrived on! Since surface topography depends to a great extent on a planet's inside, we should first peer inside the earthly universes.

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Global perspectives and surface close-ups Venus' surface-air is not appeared. Surface mapped from Megellan shuttle radar information

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Venus – Venera Missions (1961-1983) Surface Views of a portion of the earthly universes. Venus, the Moon and Mars have all been arrived on effectively by rocket from Earth. Joins Mars Exploration Rover Mission: The Mission Mars Pathfinder Apollo Lunar Missions (1969-1972) Mars Pathfinder Mission (1996-1997)

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Inside the Terrestrial Worlds When subjected to managed stress over millions to billions of years, rough material gradually misshapes and streams. Rock acts more like Silly Puddy TM , which extends when you pull it gradually however breaks on the off chance that you pull it forcefully. The rough earthbound universes got to be round a direct result of rock's capacity to stream. At the point when items surpass around 500 km in distance across, gravity can beat the quality of strong shake and make a world circular

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Gravity additionally gives the earthbound universes comparative inward structures. Particular layers are framed by separation. Separation is the procedure by which gravity isolates materials as indicated by their thickness. This brought about three layers of varying arrangement inside each earthly planet. Center Mantle Crust

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Lithosphere: Outer layer of generally unbending rock that includes the outside and the highest mantle.

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Heat streams from the hot inside to the cool outside by conduction and convection. Condution: Heat exchange as an aftereffect of direct contact. Convection: Heat exchange by method for hot material growing and rising and cool material contracting and sinking. A little area of rising and falling material is known as a convection cell.

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Shaping Planetary Surfaces There are four principle topographical procedures Impact Cratering : the unearthing of dish molded sorrows (sway holes) by space rocks or comets striking a planet's surface. Volcanism: the emission of liquid rock, or magma, from a planet's inside onto it's surface. Tectonics: the interruption of a planet's surface by inside anxieties. Disintegration: the wearing out or developing of geographical elements by wind, water, ice, and other wonders of planetary climate.

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Impact Process Ejecta Impact Ejecta Blanket

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(Mount St. Helens) c) "Sticky" magma makes steep-slanted stratovolcanoes. Picture by US Geological Survey researcher, Austin Post, on May 18, 1980.

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Tectonic Forces at work. Convection Cells

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Comparing Planetary Atmospheres

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Atmospheric Structure

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Visible Light: Warming the Surface and Coloring the Sky Atmospheric gasses diffuse blue light more than they scramble red light. Longer wavelength red light is all the more entering

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Infrared Light: the Greenhouse Effect, and the Tropsosphere The Troposphere gets to be hotter than it would on the off chance that it had no nursery gasses. Nursery gasses include: CO 2 Water Vapor

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The Greenhouse Effect

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Temperatures of the Terrestrial Worlds

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Ultraviolet light is invested in the Stratosphere. X-Rays are caught up in the Thermosphere and Exosphere.

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The Magnetosphere The Magnetosphere obstructs the Solar Wind This produces two districts where the charged particles get caught – Van Allen Belts.

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The connection of the charged particles from the sunlight based wind close to the shafts, creates the: Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) Aurora Australis (Southern Lights)

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Aurora Borealis – Norhern Lights

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Atmospheric Origins and Evolution Outgassing from Volcanic movement was most in charge of delivering the world's initial air. (Volcanoes radiate H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 , and sulfur mixes. As life created, it too affected the environment of the Earth, permitting it to end up what it is today. (e.g. plants emit O 2 and devour CO 2 )

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Many gasses can escape from the planet if their warm speed is more noteworthy than the departure rate of the planet. Five Major Processes By Which Atmospheres Lose Gas.

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A Tour of the Terrestrial Worlds

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The Moon 1,738-km sweep, 1.0AU from the Sun Astronaut investigates a little cavity An antiquated magma waterway

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Mercury (2,440-km range, 0.39AU from the Sun)

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Dust Storm over northern ice top, Mars Global Surveyor Polar Ice Cap (Mars) Viking Orbiter Edge of polar ice top demonstrating layers of ice and clean. Mars (3,397-km sweep, 1.52 AU from the Sun)

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Cratering, Volcanism and Tectonics Valles Marineris Heavy cratering in Southern Hemisphere (Mars) Olympus Mons: – biggest shield well of lava in the nearby planetary group

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Martian outpouring channels and surge planes Ancient River beds Outflow channels show disastrous flooding Water disintegrated cavity Gullies on a cavity divider framed by water streams?

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Venus (6,051-km range, 0.72 AU from Sun) Shield Volcanoes are regular Impact holes on Venus are uncommon Fractured and turned outside

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Earth (6, 378 km span, 1.0 AU from the Sun)

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Time-Line of Geologic Activity

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End of Section