Part 9.


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Part Headings. U.S. Armed force Corps of EngineersU.S. Agency of ReclamationU.S. Topographical SurveyU.S. Fish and Wildlife ServicesNational Park ServiceBureau of Land ManagementU.S. Ecological Protection AgencyNatural Resources Conservation ServiceU.S. Woodland ServiceFederal Energy Regulatory CommissionNational Marine Fisheries ServiceFederal Emergency Management Agency.
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Part 9 Federal Water Agencies

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Chapter Headings U.S. Armed force Corps of Engineers U.S. Department of Reclamation U.S. Geographical Survey U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services National Park Service Bureau of Land Management U.S. Ecological Protection Agency Natural Resources Conservation Service U.S. Timberland Service Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Marine Fisheries Service Federal Emergency Management Agency

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Chapter Headings U.S. Armed force Corps of Engineers U.S. Authority of Reclamation U.S. Topographical Survey U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services National Park Service Bureau of Land Management U.S. Ecological Protection Agency Natural Resources Conservation Service U.S. Timberland Service Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Marine Fisheries Service Federal Emergency Management Agency

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U.S. Armed force Corps of Engineers Founded in 1794 Early history in expelling tangles and building levees on the Mississippi Average lifespan of a steamboat in 1800\'s was under 2 years Great Mississippi River Flood of 1927 empowered government part in surge control Peak release of 2.5 million cfs 200 individuals murdered and 600,000 left destitute Flood Control Acts of 1928 and 1936 law required money saving advantage investigation

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Mississippi Flood 1927

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Mississippi Flood 1927

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U.S. Armed force Corps of Engineers Until 1930\'s essential movement was surge control and route in Eastern States Most traversable streams are in the East 230 locks Federal government started expansive western dam-building program amid Great Depression Hoover Dam finished in 1935 Part of object was to give livelihood

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U.S. Armed force Corps of Engineers COE started to contend with Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) for western dam ventures Primary object was water system Flood control and route was auxiliary Example is Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota USBR had verified that it was uneconomical Dam would immerse Fort Berthold Indian Reservation land COE revamp money saving advantage investigation and campaigned Congress to affirm venture Approved in 1944 for development by COE

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U.S. Armed force Corps of Engineers Early government laws energized depleting of marshes for route and malady control Swamp Lands Act of 1850 and 1860 Clean Water Act Amendments 1972 gave insurance of wetlands (bogs) Section 404 required COE endorsement of any improvement that would change or decimate a wetland

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Chapter Headings U.S. Armed force Corps of Engineers U.S. Agency of Reclamation U.S. Geographical Survey U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services National Park Service Bureau of Land Management U.S. Ecological Protection Agency Natural Resources Conservation Service U.S. Woods Service Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Marine Fisheries Service Federal Emergency Management Agency

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U.S. Department of Reclamation John Wesley Powell (1834-1902) Promoted government part in water system ventures Founded by Reclamation Act of 1902 Purpose to give water to advance settlement of dry western states Irrigation water at first constrained to ranches < 160 sections of land Construction expenses to be reimbursed by agriculturists Local water system regions set up to control funds Early achievement in making little undertakings pay Later substantial tasks took into account corporate homesteads and extraordinary interests Acre breaking points were disregarded and nearby regions did not gather funds Hoover Dam in 1935 and Grand Coulee Dam in 1941

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First to investigate the Grand Canyon Cautioned that permitting between bowl exchanges of water would abandon a few bowls without water Thought state lines ought to be attracted along watershed partitions to maintain a strategic distance from water debate U.S. Agency of Reclamation

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U.S. Authority of Reclamation 1960\'s to 1970\'s prime of dam building USBR (and COE) aligned with solid Congressional board of trustees pioneers and horticultural/corporate specific vested parties Obtained government financing for western water system ventures with faulty money saving advantage investigation Often in direct clash with Presidents\' desires

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U.S. Agency of Reclamation Anti-dam time started in 1970\'s Ralph Nader\'s Damming the West disparaging of USBR Teton Dam disappointment in eastern Idaho in 1976 Jimmy Carter suggest taking out financing for 18 USBR dam ventures Endangered Species Act went in 1973 Snail darter versus Tellico dam in 1978-79 New mission to oversee existing water extends and advance preservation

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Chapter Headings U.S. Armed force Corps of Engineers U.S. Agency of Reclamation U.S. Topographical Survey U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services National Park Service Bureau of Land Management U.S. Ecological Protection Agency Natural Resources Conservation Service U.S. Woods Service Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Marine Fisheries Service Federal Emergency Management Agency

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U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conserve, ensure, and improve fish, natural life, plants, and their living spaces Administers the 1973 Endangered Species Act (ESA) Protects imperiled species and their living space Oversees National Wildlife Refuges for transient winged animals Operates 70 fish incubation centers for diversion and jeopardized types of fish

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Chapter Headings U.S. Armed force Corps of Engineers U.S. Authority of Reclamation U.S. Topographical Survey U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services National Park Service Bureau of Land Management U.S. Ecological Protection Agency Natural Resources Conservation Service U.S. Woodland Service Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Marine Fisheries Service Federal Emergency Management Agency

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National Park Service First National Park was Yosemite in 1864 NPS Founded in 1916 Oversees national parks Largest parks are in the west and incorporate delicate watersheds Early discussion over damming Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite San Francisco needed a store for water USBR manufactured the dam in 1913

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National Park Service Lingering malevolence over Hetch Hetchy kept any further dam development in national parks 1976 Supreme Court decided that national parks got held water rights when a recreation center was made Reserved water could be utilized to keep up stream streams

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Chapter Headings U.S. Armed force Corps of Engineers U.S. Authority of Reclamation U.S. Land Survey U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services National Park Service Bureau of Land Management U.S. Ecological Protection Agency Natural Resources Conservation Service U.S. Woodland Service Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Marine Fisheries Service Federal Emergency Management Agency

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U.S. EPA Water Quality Act of 1965 Created first water quality models Limited achievement U.S. EPA made in 1970 Legislative power to force fines and prison sentences for infringement of natural laws Filed suit against Detroit, Cleveland, and Atlanta not long after being made

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U.S. EPA Clean Water Act Amendments of 1972 Goal of making all waters "fishable and swimable" by 1983 Strengthened government water quality principles Established grant framework for point sources (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, NPDES) Over $20 billion spent on city sewage plants 1972-1992 Section 404 ensured wetlands

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U.S. EPA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 Regulation of risky squanders Superfund set up in 1980 For tidying up unsafe waste destinations

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Snail Darter versus Tellico Dam Conflict portrayed in Marc Reisner\'s Cadillac Dessert and Chapter 12 of reading material

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Snail Darter versus Tellico Dam Jimmy Carter\'s first involvement with dams was as Governor in Georgia Carter had a degree in designing from U.S. Maritime Academy Dam was proposed on Flint River at Sprewell Bluff by COE Now a state park: http://gastateparks.org/Carter read COE arrangement Wrote rankling 18-page letter to COE blaming it for "computational control" "The COE deceived me" he told companions Vetoed gets ready for the dam

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Snail Darter versus Tellico Dam Shortly after race as President in 1976 Carter checked on government system to oversee water assets 19 new water tasks were proposed by USBR and COE Concluded "There is no intelligible water assets administration strategy" Later that year Carter vetoed a bill to support the activities

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Snail Darter versus Tellico Dam Tennessee Valley Authority Created amid the Great Depression by President Franklin Roosevelt "An organization dressed with the force of government however had of the adaptability and activity of a private endeavor" First endeavor at "watershed methodology" to arranging Goal was to help advancement in poor rustic regions by giving shabby power, manures, and so on. Did this by creating hydroelectric dams www.tva.gov/destinations/sites_ie2.htm

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Snail Darter versus Tellico Dam TVA began with a decent approach yet then exceeded it\'s main goal (in Reisner\'s perspective) By 1970\'s a great part of the electric force was being produced by coal-controlled plants Strip mining coal was annihilating the area Much of the territory was still neediness stricken Coal-fueled plants were adding to corrosive downpour issues in the upper east

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Snail Darter versus Tellico Dam Tellico Dam had been proposed by TVA in 1960s Dam would not create hydropower Would bring the level up in the Little Tennessee River with the goal that additional water could be go through a trench to a current hydroelectric dam Would deliver generally unimportant extra power No surge control advantage Little recreational advantage (numerous different supplies in encompassing region) Approved for development in 1969

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Snail Darter versus Tellico Dam Endangered Species Act went in 1973 In 1973, educator of zoology from University of Tennessee found snail darter in Little Tennessee River 1975 USFW arranged snail darter as a jeopardized species Court requested dam development stopped D

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