Part 9 Characteristics and Quality Scientific categorizations.

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Dispositional Perspective. . Individuals show coherence or consistency over their own particular activities, contemplations, and feelingsPeople vary from each other in numerous significant waysMajor hypothesis under this perspectiveType and Trait Theory. Order. . Normal for most sciences in their endeavor to discover orderOne of most essential ways to deal with comprehension personalityCommon sense approachTo find o
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Identity Psychology Chapter 9 Traits and Trait Taxonomies

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Dispositional Perspective People show progression or consistency over their own behavior, musings, and sentiments People contrast from each other in numerous significant ways Major hypothesis under this viewpoint Type and Trait Theory

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Classification Characteristic of most sciences in their endeavor to discover request One of most essential ways to deal with comprehension identity Common sense way to deal with find request about identity

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Type and Trait Theory Defined A dispositional hypothesis that clarifies identity as an arrangement of stable attributes inside People display these qualities crosswise over different circumstances and crosswise over time

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Specific Definitions Types Original definition: Discontinuous classes Current definition: Large, consistent classes including characteristics Traits Continuous classifications

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Key Components Types and qualities both exist in a various leveled request Types and attributes are represented by an assortment of potential procedures Factor examination frequently used to decide chains of importance Traits can be refined into a couple general classes; "Enormous 5" Model one of most famous

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Key People Allport Cattell Eysenck

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Trait hypothesis… … is an approach to portray/anticipate yet it is NOT a hypothesis of advancement

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How would you find qualities? Step 1: Choose your technique Lexical Approach : Collecting words and equivalent words of attributes Statistical (Empirical) Approach : Use variable examination Theoretical Approach : Borrowing speculations, particularly from antiquated researchers, and deciding qualities from these hypotheses

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Step 2: Distil utilizing Factor Analysis Statistical system to distinguish things that gathering together and mirror a bigger component Problems Selection of qualities Labeling of elements Number of elements

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Gordon Allport "Father" of quality hypothesis Founded upon individual experience Took a lexical way to deal with creating characteristic hypothesis

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Allport\'s perspective of quality hypothesis There is worth in surface attributes – there is something else entirely to a man than what is at the "oblivious" level It is a bit much dependably to underscore one\'s past To find what somebody resemble – Ask them about themselves! They are the best wellspring of data Traits are both acquired and learned

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Allport\'s perspective of quality hypothesis Common Traits that are characterized the same path for all individuals Personal Traits Unique indication of attributes

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Types of Personal Traits Cardinal demeanor One single characteristic that characterizes everything for a man Central mien 5 –10 profoundly trademark and often seen individual attributes Secondary manner Influential characteristics that are less reliable and summed up than cardinal or focal attributes

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Raymond Cattell Empirical way to deal with attribute hypothesis Factor investigation lessening of 4,500 characteristic words (left by Allport) to 16 most essential identity measurements Not as worried with whether characteristics were acquired or learned

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Cattell\'s 16 identity measurements Reserved vs. Warm Concrete Abstract Reactive Emotionally stable Deferential Dominant Serious Lively Expedient Rule-principled Shy Bold Utilitarian Sensitive Trusting Vigilant Practical Imaginative Forthright Private Self-assured Apprehensive Traditional Open to change Group-oriented Self-dependent Tolerates disorder Perfectionistic Relaxed Tense

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Source versus Surface characteristics Source quality Causal element attribute that decides how a man reacts Surface attribute Manifestation of a source attribute

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Three sorts of characteristics Ability attributes Temperament attributes Dynamic characteristics

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Ability characteristics Define different sorts of knowledge and decide how viably a man moves in the direction of a craved objective Fluid insight (inborn capacity to learn) Crystallized insight (the impacts of instruction; what has been scholarly)

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Temperament qualities Inherited source qualities that decide the general style of association

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Dynamic qualities Motivational characteristics Ergs (intrinsic inspiration qualities) Meta-ergs (educated, ecological inception)

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Hans Eysenck Theoretical way to deal with quality hypothesis Took speculations of Hippocrates, Jung, et. al., and considered a fundamental 2x2 lattice of super qualities Believed attributes were hereditarily based" was organically situated

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Two measurements ("Supertraits") Introversion/extraversion : Tendencies toward amiability, longing for energy, enthusiasm, predominance, liveliness Emotionality/solidness : Ease and recurrence with which a man gets to be disturbed and troubled, with more prominent grumpiness, tension, and wretchedness reflecting more noteworthy passionate insecurity

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Eysenck\'s Two Dimensions Emotionally Stable Emotionally Unstable | Introvert | Phlegmatic (quiet): Melancholi c (discouraged) | uninvolved, watchful, controlled quiet, docile, on edge, | reserved Extravert | Sanguine (optimistic) Choleric (touchy) | sociable, outgoing, active, imprudent, | lively, carefree excitable, aggressive

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Trait issues what number classes? Does the methodology used to create quality hypothesis (experimental, hypothetical, lexical) have any kind of effect in result? Did all attribute scholars take after the same suppositions exhibited for dispositional hypothesis? What is the worldview?

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Where did attribute hypothesis follow Cattell and Eysenck? Taking after Cattell, attribute information gathered in new, more complete, and multivariate ways Further component examination Cattell\'s information imitated with new, assorted specimens, numerous societies, distinctive dialects, youngsters, and over the long haul "layman" characteristic terms included More perceptions and nonverbal appraisals Findings demonstrated 5 elements!

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The "Enormous 5" Extraversion (Power) Aggreeableness (Love) Conscientiousness (Work) Emotionality (Affect) Openness to Experience (Intellect)

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The Fifth Factor? Given diverse names by various scientists Cross-social contrasts

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Reactions to "Huge 5" Support Eysenck and his camp More strong and replicable than whatever other scientific categorization Is a settled premise on which to assemble Research for extra variables is not convincing and the elements are not pertinent to identity (engaging quality) Is a structure for phenotypic characteristics of identity situated in human dialect Opposition There might be more elements (hotness, appeal, devotion, deep sense of being) Does not catch fundamental identity forms

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