Pre-adult Development and Health National Adolescent Health Information Center and The Public Policy Analysis & Education Center for Middle Childhood, Adolescent & Young Adult Health Department of Pediatrics & Institute for Health Policy Studies University of California, San FranciscoSlide 2
In This Presentation Development Tasks and Stages of Adolescence Health Mortality Morbidity Chronic ConditionsSlide 3
Adolescent DevelopmentSlide 5
Adolescent Development Adolescence : Period of progress from youngster grown-up Psychological development Cognitive changes Social/social change Puberty : Biologic procedure Transition tyke grown-up Secondary sexual attributes Adult size and appearance Reproductive abilitiesSlide 6
Tasks of Adolescence Body develops to sexual grown-up Cognitively-mind creates unique deduction aptitudes Morally, the teenager distinguishes important good/social principles, qualities and conviction frameworks Identity shaped – sex, sexual, social Teen characterizes a grown-up part with obligations Source: A. Rae Simpson, PhD, Parenting of Adolescents Center, Harvard School of Public HealthSlide 7
Stages of Adolescent Development Early Adolescence Females: 9 - 13 yo Males: 11 – 15 yo Middle Adolescence Females: 13 – 16 yo Males: 14 – 17 yo Late Adolescence Females: 16 – 21 yo Males: 17 –21 yoSlide 8
Early Adolescence Adjusting to body/pubertal changes " Am I typical ?" Concern with self-perception and security Begin partition from family, expanded guardian youngster strife Self distraction and dream Moody ! Same-sex companions and gathering exercises Concentration of associations with companions Concrete supposing however starting to investigate new capacity to extract - concentrated on the presentSlide 9
Middle Adolescence Extremely worried with looks-" Am I appealing?" Increased freedom from family-(excursion quandaries) Increased significance of companion gathering (Everyone\'s doing it) Experimentation with connections & sexual practices Movement towards framing sexual introduction/personality Increased theoretical supposing capacity Development of goals & choice of good examples The unselfish dreamerSlide 10
Late Adolescence Autonomy about secured-not mean absolutely Body picture & sex part definition almost secured Thinking past themselves world perspective Attainment of unique supposing & helpful understanding Greater enthusiastic strength Greater closeness aptitudes Sexual introduction about secured Ability to express thoughts in words Concern for future Transition to grown-up parts - school, workSlide 11
Protective Factors in Adolescence Parental/family Connectedness to a critical grown-up School engagement & achievement Not working, or working < 20 hours/wk Being "in-a state of harmony" with companions re: physical dev Perceived significance of religion and petition Participation in sorted out exercisesSlide 12
Adolescent HealthSlide 13
Background Why would it be advisable for us to put resources into juvenile wellbeing? Yearly, an expected $700 billion is spent on preventable pre-adult wellbeing issues. This appraisal considers just the immediate and long haul medicinal and social expenses connected with 6 basic wellbeing issues: Adolescent pregnancy Sexually transmitted diseases Motor vehicle wounds Alcohol & other medication issues Other unexpected wounds Mental wellbeing issuesSlide 14
Determinants of HealthSlide 15
Mortality After cresting in the mid 1990s, death rates have diminished to (or are close) record lows for all young people. Throughout the most recent century, the main sources of death for teenagers changed from regular causes to damage and savagery. Harm and brutality represent 71% of passings among youths and youthful grown-ups. Sources: CDC Wonder, Compressed Mortality Database, 2004 - http://wonder.cdc.gov; CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/Slide 16
Trends in Overall Mortality by Gender, Ages 10-24, 1980-2002 Source: CDC Wonder, Compressed Mortality Database, 2004 - http://wonder.cdc.govSlide 17
Mortality by Race/Ethnicity & Gender, Ages 10-24, 2002 Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/Slide 18
Leading Causes of Death for Adolescents and Ages 10-19, 2002 Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/Slide 19
Injury Unintentional harm mortality has fallen in the course of recent decades because of a lessening in deadly engine vehicle mishaps, the main source of death for youths. 82% of secondary school understudies and 70% of 18-24 year-olds in 2003 reported that they generally utilize safety belts. 33% of deadly crashes among 21-24 year-olds in 2002 included liquor. 28% of 18-25 year-olds in 2003 reported that they drove affected by liquor or illegal medications. Sources: CDC/NCIPC, 2005; YRBSS, 2004; BRFSS, 2004; NHTSA, 2003; NSDUH, 2004Slide 20
Unintentional Injury Mortality by Race/Ethnicity, Ages 10-24, 2002 Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/Slide 21
Injury Risk Behaviors by Gender, High School Students, 2003 Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/Slide 22
Violence Homicide is the second biggest reason for death for teenagers. In 2002, guys ages 15-19 had a crime rate 5 times the rate for same-age females (15 versus 3/100,000). In 2002, guys ages 20-24 had a manslaughter rate 6 times the rate for same-age females (27.5 versus 5/100,000). Dark, non-Hispanic guys ages 15-24 had the most astounding manslaughter rate (86/100,000) in 2002. Murder rates have diminished in the previous decade among ages 10-24. Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/Slide 23
Homicide Mortality by Gender & Race/Ethnicity, Ages 10-24, 2002 Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/Slide 24
Homicide Trends, Males, Ages 15-19, 1990-2002 Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/Slide 25
Violence-Related Behavior by Gender, High School Students, 2003 Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/Slide 26
Suicide In 2002, guys ages 15-19 had a suicide rate 5 times the rate for same-age females (12 versus 2/100,000). In 2002, guys ages 20-24 had a suicide rate 6 times the rate for same-age females (21 versus 3.5/100,000). American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic guys ages 15-24 had the most noteworthy suicide rate (36) in 2002. Suicide rates have diminished in the previous decade among ages 10-24, from 9/100,000 in 1981 to 7/100,000 in 2002. Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/Slide 27
Non-Lethal Suicidal Behavior by Gender, High School Students, 2003 Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/Slide 28
Suicide Mortality by Race/Ethnicity & Gender, Ages 10-24, 2002 Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/Slide 29
Sadness or Hopelessness which Prevented Usual Activities by Gender & Race/Ethnicity, High School Students, 2003 Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/Slide 30
Learning Disabilities & ADHD by Gender, Ages 12-17, 2001 Source: Bloom et al., 2003; NHIS; Parent report - http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htmSlide 31
Mental Health Among 12-17 year-olds in 2003, past year: 21% got psychological wellness treatment or directing. Among 18-25 year-olds in 2003, past year: 14% have a genuine dysfunctional behavior; higher among females, non-Hispanic Whites & non-school destined; 35% of those with genuine emotional instability got psychological well-being treatment or guiding. There are couple of national information on pre-adult emotional well-being status. Sources: NSDUH, 2004; Child Trends, 2003 - http://www.childtrends.org/Slide 32
Substance Use of tobacco, liquor and unlawful medications has diminished from the pinnacles of the late 1970s and mid 1980s. American Indian/Alaskan Native and White teenagers report the most elevated amounts of utilization. Rates of substantial substance use are a proceeding with concern.Slide 33
Trends in Past Thirty-Day Substance Use, twelfth Graders, 1975-2003 Source: Monitoring the Future, 2004 - http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/Slide 34
Past Month Substance Use by Type and Race/Ethnicity, Ages 12-17, 2004 Source: National Survey on Drug Use & Health, 2005 - http://www.drugabusestatistics.samhsa.gov/nsduh.htmSlide 35
Reproductive Health Overall, regenerative wellbeing patterns over the previous decade are certain: Young individuals are postponing sexual action; Among sexually dynamic secondary school understudies, there has been an expansion in condom utilize; The rates of youthful pregnancies, births and fetus removal have declined; The pervasiveness of most sexually transmitted diseases has diminished.Slide 36
Reproductive Health However, certain patterns warrant proceeded with concern: The wide pervasiveness of Chlamydia, and also increment in rates in the course of recent years; The moderately unobtrusive decrease in the pregnancy rate among Hispanic youths; The proceeding with high rate of STIs among youthful Black females.Slide 37
Pregnancy, Birth & Abortion Rates Among Females Ages 15-19, 1980-2000 Source: Henshaw, 2004 - http://www.guttmacher.org/bars/teen_stats.htmlSlide 38
Sexual Intercourse Experience by Race/Ethnicity, Gender & Grade Level, 2003 9 th Grade 12 th
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