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Liberalism LSJ 362 Prof. Angelina Godoy Autumn 2007 What is the difference between liberalism as a political tradition in the contemporary USA and liberalism in political theory? Liberal theorists are a diverse bunch but some general characteristics of liberal thought can be identified
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Progressivism LSJ 362 Prof. Angelina Godoy Autumn 2007

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What is the distinction between radicalism as a political convention in the contemporary USA and progressivism in political hypothesis? Liberal scholars are a various group however some broad attributes of liberal thought can be distinguished

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1. Condition of nature Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and others discussed normal law as coming from God-given “human nature” Jefferson (US Declaration of Independence): “We hold these Truths to act naturally apparent, that all Men are made equivalent, that they are supplied by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness…”

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2. Social Contract Locke : social contract hypothesis “Man, being, as has been said, by nature all free, equivalent, and autonomous, nobody can be put out of this bequest and subjected to the political force of another without his own assent. The main way whereby anybody strips himself of his characteristic freedom and puts on the obligations of common society is by concurring with other men to join and unite into a group for their agreeable, safe, and quiet living one among another….” (p. 64) Hobbes : the state, and its law, give request, avoid “the war of all against all”

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2. Social contract Jefferson : “…That to secure these Rights, Governments are initiated among Men, getting their fair Powers from the Governed's Consent, that at whatever point any Form of Government gets to be damaging of these Ends, it is the People's Right to adjust or to abrogate it, and to establish new Government, establishing its Framework on such Principles, and sorting out its Powers in such Form, as to them should appear to be well on the way to impact their Safety and Happiness.” Underlying these thoughts is the supposition that the individual is self-governing, self-coordinated, discerning, and will just bolster approaches that advantage him over the long haul : J.S. Plant “Over himself, over his own particular body and brain, the individual is sovereign …” (p. 51)

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3. Singular Liberties Usually, in excellent liberal hypothesis, just constrained confinements on individual freedoms can be advocated The essential (and for some the main) reason for government and law is to secure individual freedoms J.S. Factory: “The sole end for which humanity are justified, independently or by and large, in meddling with the freedom or activity of any of their number, is self security. …The reason for which power can be legitimately practiced over any individual from an edified group, without wanting to, will be to forestall damage to others.” (p. 51)

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These thoughts ought to sound well known in light of the fact that they frame the premise for US government. What interchange avocations for government or methods for requesting society would we be able to envision?

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John Locke (1632-1704) England, seventeenth century – time of extraordinary turbulence, including clashes in the middle of Crown and Parliament, Protestants, Anglicans, and Catholics, and numerous scholarly level headed discussions about how best to represent society Locke was a progressive in thoughts and legislative issues Trained in drug, got to be close to home doctor to Lord Ashley, and through his work with Ashley got to be included in political issues

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John Locke (1632-1704) The Two Treatises of Government (1690) “Man being conceived, as has been demonstrated, with a title to flawless opportunity and uncontrolled pleasure in every one of the rights and benefits of the law of nature just as with whatever other man or number of men on the planet, has by nature an influence not just to safeguard his property – that is, his life, freedom, and bequest – against the wounds and endeavors of other men, yet to judge of and rebuff the ruptures of that law in others as he is induced the offense deserves…” (p 62)

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John Locke (1632-1704) The Two Treatises of Government (1690) “…Those who are united into one body, and have a typical built up law and judicature to engage, with power to choose debates in the middle of them, and rebuff wrongdoers, are in common society with each other; yet the individuals who have no such basic appeal…are still in the condition of nature, every being, the place there is no other, judge for himself, and killer, which is, as I have before demonstrated to it, the ideal condition of nature… And consequently the federation drops by an influence to set down what discipline should have a place with the few transgressions which they consider commendable it… and this for the property's protection of the considerable number of individuals from that society to the extent is possible.” (62-63)

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John Locke (1632-1704) "The awesome and boss end, in this way, of men uniting into wards, and putting themselves under government, is the conservation of their property .” “When any number of men have so assented to make one group or government, they are subsequently instantly consolidated and make one body politic wherein the larger part have a privilege to act and finish up the rest…” (p.65)

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John Locke (1632-1704) Majority guideline is great in light of the fact that it has 3 attributes: 1. law can't be completely discretionary in light of the fact that gets its energy from the general population themselves : “Their power, in the most extreme limits of it, is constrained to people in general great of the general public. It is a power that has no flip side yet protection, and thusly can never have a privilege to pulverize, oppress, or designedly to ruin the subjects.” “The decides that they make for different men’s activities must, and additionally their own particular and different men’s activities be comparable to the law of nature, i.e., to the will of God, of which that is an assertion, and the key law of nature being the safeguarding of humankind, no human approval can be great or legitimate against it.”

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John Locke (1632-1704) 2. law will be open in condition of nature, law is unwritten (every individual deciphers it for him/herself) and consequently indeterminate; when individuals go into affiliation, they make law through standing laws, perceived judges, and so on – everybody knows the standards “For all the force the administration has being just for the general public's benefit, as it should not to be subjective and at delight so it should be practiced by built up and proclaimed laws ; that both the general population may know their obligation and be protected and secure inside of the points of confinement of the law; and the rulers, as well, kept inside of their limits , and not be enticed by the force they have in their grasp to utilize it to such purposes and by such measures as they would not have known…” (p. 66-67)

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John Locke (1632-1704) 3. government can't take citizens’ property “supreme power can't take from any man some piece of his property without his own particular assent, for the protection of property being the end of government , and that for which men go into society, it fundamentally assumes and obliges, that the general population ought to have property…” (p. 67) “If they who say ‘it establishes a framework for rebellion’ imply that it may event common wars… to tell the general population they are exonerated from dutifulness when unlawful endeavors are made upon their freedoms or properties.. they should say, upon the same ground, that fair men may not contradict burglars or privateers in light of the fact that this may event issue or bloodshed.” (p. 67)

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John Locke (1632-1704) Citizens have rights against their administration and ought to safeguard those rights regardless of the possibility that it means defying their administration “The end of government is the benefit of humankind. What's more, which is best for humankind: that the general population ought to be constantly presented to the unfathomable will of oppression, or that the rulers ought to some of the time be subject to be contradicted when they develop over the top in the utilization of their energy and utilize it for the pulverization and not the properties' conservation of their people?” (p. 67)  the point of gov’t is to give freedom and security, yet the natives have a privilege to topple the gov’t on the off chance that it neglects to give either

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J. S. Plant (1806-1873) A rationalist (and child of a scholar), additionally dynamic in legislative issues (served in House of Commons) Utilitarian mastermind Advocate for women’s rights Unlike prior liberals, Mill did not think about government as a matter of regular rights or social contract, as in numerous types of radicalism . Types of government are, fairly, to be judged by in the biggest sense, grounded on the perpetual enthusiasm of man as a dynamic being" ( On Liberty , p. 224).

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J. S. Factory (1806-1873) Mill contended that in the Locke’s day, the battle had been one of limiting so as to pick up freedom the ruler's force. In any case, vote based system contained an alternate risk: it implied that power had to a great extent went under the general population's control everywhere, and the peril now was that the greater part denies freedom to people, whether expressly through laws, or unobtrusively through intimidation . On Liberty , 1869: “The subject of this Essay is … Civil, or Social Liberty: the nature and points of confinement of the force which can be honest to goodness practiced by society over the individual.”

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J. S. Factory (1806-1873) “There is a circle of activity in which society, as recognized from the individual, has, if any, just a backhanded enthusiasm; appreciating all that divide of a person’s life and behavior which influences just himself, or in the event that it likewise influences others, just with their free, willful, and undeceived assent and participation… This, then, is the proper area of human freedom. ” (p. 51)

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J. S. Fact