Prologue to Biomedical Instruments Science It manages wide range of Life sciences i.e. plants, creatures, Bugs or.


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A Prologue to Bio Medicinal Instrumentation Science
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An Introduction to Bio Medical Instrumentation Science By Prof. Mahendra H. Gaushal , M.D. [Hom] Head, Dept of Medicine KDMG’s Homeopathic Medical College & Hospital Shirpur Dist – Dhule M.S. [ India] Mobile – 9822852735 – 9371196843 E-mail-mahenarya123@rediffmail.com Thankfully [ In relationship with : SGGS Institute of Engg & Technology, Nanded [M.S.] www.sggs.ac.in , www.sggsnanded.org

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Introduction to Biomedical Instruments Biology It manages wide range of Life sciences i.e. plants, creatures, Insects or in nutshell every single living life form. Investigation of just individual out of these is Called Medical Science. In the event that we need to study Engineering standards in therapeutic science the subsequent subject will be Medical Engineering. On the off chance that we wish to cover more creatures on the earth, the science will be Bio-Medical Engineering. Building or Instrumentation is characterized as investigation of utilizing estimations.

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SCOPE – 1 The investigation of Engineering standards from Biomedical Engineering includes taking after premiums : To comprehend instruments, efficiencies & physical changes of different subsystems of the body. To develop an instrumentation framework for determination, treatment and supplementation of body capacity. To get subjective & quantitative information through distinctive instruments which can help for investigation of clutters, and further the Biomechanics of the cure process.

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SCOPE – 2 The investigation of restorative standards from Biomedical building includes taking after premiums. To comprehend Bio-Chemico-Electro – Thermo-Hydraulico-Pneumatico-Physico-Magnato-Mechano – Dynamic activities and changes of different sub frameworks of the body in ordinary states. To Understand above activities & changes in different sub frameworks of the body in strange states i.e. in Pathology. To acquire subjective & quantitative information of what medication does to the body ( Pharmacodynamics ) and what body does to the medication ( Pharmacokinetics ) amid and after remedy of the medication.

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DOCTOR PATIENT SYMPTOMS INSTRUMENT SYMPTOMS PHYSICIAN TREATMENT DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT A.THE PHYSICIAN B.MODERY PHYSICIAN

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HISTORY Stethoscope, the first medicinal instrument its could call its own kind was imagined in by French Physician Laennec. Today in 1997 even at an area place in India PC supported tomography hardware is effectively accessible. For a long time, the specialists, vaidyas relied on heartbeat rate, thermometer and stethoscope , however today many modern Biomedical instruments are accessible.

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BREAK THROUGH An amazing leap forward as ECG was developed by Dutch researcher in 1930. It was the first stride forward towards modernization of Biomedical Instrumentation.

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CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTS Medical Engineering Diagnostic Indicating Recording Therapeutic Monitoring Data Logging Supplementary Analysis Control CLASSIFICATION OF BMI

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FUNCTION OF INSTRUMENTS Function Thermometer Indication E.C.G. Recording Bio Monitor Monitoring Computer Data Logging Blood Analysir Analysis Dialysis

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Engineering Classification of Biomedical Instrumentation 1. Measuring Instruments. 2. Audiometer 3. Blood cell counter 4. Blood Pressure meter 5. Blood PH meter 6. Blood stream meter Digital BP meter GSR meter 9. Stethoscope

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Recording instruments 1. Electrocardiograph 2. Electromyograph 3. Electro encephalograph 4. Expirograph 5. Phonocardiograph 6. Plethysmograph 7. Thermograph 8. Tomograph 9. Ultra sonograph 10. Radio diagram ( x-beam)

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Monitoring Instruments 1.Bed – side screen 2.Bio – screen 3.Foetal screen

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Analyzing Instruments 1. Colorimeter 2. Spectrometer 3. Flame photograph meter

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Monitoring Instruments 1. Bed – side screen 2. Bio – screen 3. Foetal screen

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Data logging Instruments 1. Computer

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Controlling Instruments 1. Defibrillator 2. Dialysis instrument 3. Heart lung machine

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A] Medical Classification of BMI 1. DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS 2. Endoscope 3. Stethoscope 4. Microscope

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B] THERAPEUTIC INSTRUMENTS 1. Shortwave diathermy 2. Ultrasound treatment 3. Electro surgery 4. Nuclear Medicine

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C] SUPPLEMENTARY 1. Aid for visually impaired 2. Hearing guide 3. Pace creator

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FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTS A] BLOOD INSTRUMENTS 1. Blood Pressure meter 2. Blood PH meter 3. Blood stream meter 4. Blood cell counter 5. Calorimeter 6. Spectra – Photometer 7. Flame photometer 8. Digital BP meter

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B] HEART INSTRUMENT 1. ECG 2. Pace Maker 3. Defibrillator 4. Heart Lung Machine 5. Bed side screen 6. Plethysmograph 7. Electronic stethoscope 8. Phonocardiograph

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C] BRAIN INSTRUMENTS 1. EEG 2. Tomograph

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D] MUSCLE INSTRUMENTS 1. EMG 2. Muscle Stimulater

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E] BRAIN INSTRUMENTS 1. EEG 2. Tomograph

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F] KIDNEY INSTRUMENTS 1. Dialysis Instrument 2. Lithotripsy

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F] KIDNEY INSTRUMENTS 1. Dialysis Instrument 2. Lithotripsy

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G] EAR INSTRUMENTS 1. Audiometer 2. Hearing guide

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H] EYE INSTRUMENTS 1. Occulometer 2. Aid for visually impaired

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I ] LUNG INSTRUMENTS 1. Spirometer

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J] BODY INSTRUMENTS 1. Ultra Sonography 2. Thermograph 3. Radiograph 4. EPF 5. Endoscope

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K] PHYSIOTHERAPHY INSTRUMENTS 1. Diathermy, Short wave 2. Electrosleeper 3. Vibrator ( Massage sort ) 4. U.V. Lamph 5. Microwave diathermy

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1.BIO METRICS It is the branch of science that incorporates estimations of physiological variables and parameters. BMI gives the instruments by which these estimations can be accomplished.

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1.1 - RANGE The scope of an instrument is by and large considered to incorporate every one of the levels of data plentifulness & recurrence over which the gadget is relied upon to work. The goal is to give an instrument that will give a usable perusing from the littlest expected estimation of the variable or parameter being measured to the biggest.

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1.2 – SENSITIVITY The affectability of an instrument decides how little a variety of a variable or parameter can be truly dependably measured.

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1.3 – LINEARITY The extent to which varieties in the yield of an instrument take after info varieties is alluded to as the gadget\'s linearity.

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1.4 – HYSTERESIS It is a normal for a few instruments where by a given estimation of the deliberate variable results in an alternate perusing when come to in a rising bearing from that acquired when it is come to in a dropping heading .

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1.5 - FREQUENCY RESPONSE The recurrence reaction of an instrument in its variety in affectability over the recurrence scope of the estimation. It is vital to show a wave shape that is a reliable proliferation of the first physiological sign.

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1.6 – ACCURACY It is a measure of systemic mistake. Lapses can happen in a large number of ways. Albeit not generally exhibit at the same time, the accompanying blunders ought to be considered. 1. Errors because of resistances of electronic parts. 2. Mechanical lapses in meter developments. 3. Component blunders because of float or temperature varieties. 4. Errors because of poor recurrence reaction. 5. Errors because of progress in climatic weight or temperature. Perusing blunders because of parallel deficient enlightenments or too much wide ink follows on a pen recording. Two extra wellsprings of Errors are Correct instrument focusing or making right standard. The instrument\'s impact on the parameter to be measured & the other way around. ( Specially in estimations in living being )

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1.7 - SIGNAL TO NOICE RATIO It is imperative that the sign to – clamor proportion be high as would be prudent.

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1.8 – STABILITY In control building, Stability is the capacity of a framework to resume a relentless state conditions taking after an unsettling influence at the information as opposed to be crashed into wild wavering.

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1.9 - ISOLATION Electrical Isolation is to be made for maintaining a strategic distance from obstruction between distinctive instruments utilized at the same time. It can be accomplished by utilizing attractive or discretionary coupling method or utilizing radio tetermetry. Telemetry is likewise utilized where development of the individual or creature to be measured.

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1.10 – SIMPLICITY All frameworks & instruments ought to be as straightforward as would be prudent to wipe out the shot of part or human mistake.

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INSTRODUCTION TO THE MAN MACHINE SYSTEM A traditional activity in Biomedical building investigation includes the estimation of OUTPUTS from an obscure framework as they are influenced by different mixes of INPUTS. The article is to take in the nature & attributes of the framework. This obscure framework, regularly reffered to as a BLACK BOX, may have a mixed bag of design for a given blend of INPUTS and OUTPUTS. The final result of such an activity is normally an arrangement of Input – Output comparisons proposed to characterize the inward elements of the Box. These capacities may be generally straightforward or greatly complex.

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BLACK BOX One of the most complex black box is living creature. Particularly the living person ……. HUMAN BODY AS BLACK BOX Human body is Bio – chemico – physico – electro – thermo – hydraulico – pneumatico – magnatico mechanically built machine, which runs consequently through the essential power, now a days called Bio vitality.

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BIO – POTENTIAL SIGNALS – It is a verifiable truth that human body is a wellspring of different bio-pot

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