Prologue to Information Systems .


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. Data Concepts (1). Information versus InformationDataRaw factsDistinct bits of data, as a rule designed in an exceptional wayInformationA accumulation of truths composed in a manner that they have extra esteem past the estimation of the certainties themselves. Information
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Part 1 Introduction to Information Systems

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Information Concepts (1) Data versus Data Raw realities Distinct bits of data, for the most part designed uniquely Information A gathering of truths sorted out in a manner that they have extra esteem past the estimation of the actualities themselves

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Data "Talk" (1) (1) Distinct bits of data, more often than not arranged uncommonly. All product is isolated into two general classes: information and projects. Projects are accumulations of guidelines for controlling information. Information can exist in an assortment of structures - as numbers or content on bits of paper, as bits and bytes put away in electronic memory, or as certainties put away in a man\'s psyche. Entirely, information is the plural of datum, a solitary bit of

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data. By and by, notwithstanding, individuals utilize information as both the particular and plural type of the word. (2) The term information is frequently used to recognize paired machine-intelligible data from printed comprehensible data. For instance, a few applications make a qualification between information records (documents that contain paired information) and content records (documents that contain ASCII information). (3) In database administration frameworks, information records are the documents that store the database data, while different documents, for example, list records and information word references, store managerial data, known as metadata.

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Homework Is the expression "data"generally utilized as a part of the solitary or plural (a) in the course reading, and (b) in the zdwebopedia site? Q

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Terminology Process An arrangement of legitimately related errands performed to accomplish a characterized result Process (n) An executing program. The term is utilized freely as an equivalent word of assignment. (v) To play out some valuable operations on information.

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Terminology Knowledge A mindfulness and comprehension of an arrangement of data and how that data can be made helpful to bolster a particular undertaking Knowledge base The accumulation of information, standards, techniques, and connections that must be taken after to accomplish esteem or the best possible result

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Types of Data

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Data ��  Information Data Transformation Information

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Characteristics of Valuable Information Characteristics Accurate, finish, efficient, adaptable, solid, important, straightforward, auspicious, unquestionable, open, secure

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System An arrangement of components or segments that interface to fulfill objectives A blend of segments cooperating

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System "Exchange" (1) Refers to a mix of segments cooperating. For instance, a PC framework incorporates both equipment and programming. A Windows framework is a PC running the Windows working framework. A desktop distributing framework is a PC running desktop distributing programming. (2) Short for PC framework. (3) Short to operate framework. (4) An association or approach. The parallel numbering framework, for example, is an approach to tally utilizing just two digits.

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System Elements Inputs Processing instruments Outputs

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System Example

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System Components and Concepts System limit Defines the framework and recognizes it from everything else System sorts Simple versus complex Open versus shut Stable versus dynamic Adaptive versus nonadaptive Permanent versus brief

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System Performance and Standards Efficiency A measure of what is created separated by what is expended Effectiveness A measure of the degree to which a framework accomplishes its objectives System execution standard A particular target of the framework (next 2 slides)

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Figure 1.5a

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Figure 1.5b

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System Variables and Parameters System variable An amount or thing that can be controlled by the chief E.g. the value an organization charges for an item System parameter An esteem or amount that can\'t be controlled by the leader E.g., cost of a crude material

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Modeling a System Model A deliberation or an estimate that is utilized to speak to reality Types of models Narrative (otherwise known as expressive) Physical Schematic Mathematical Next slide

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Information System (IS) Definition An arrangement of interrelated components or segments that gather (input), control (handle), and disperse (yield) information and data and give a criticism instrument to meet a goal (IS) Pronounced as discrete letters, and short for Information Systems or Information Services. For some organizations, is the name of the division in charge of PCs, systems administration and information administration. Different organizations allude to the division as IT (Information Technology) and MIS (Management Information Services).

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What is an Information System? Schematic model of a data framework Feedback Input Processing Output

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Input, Processing, Output, Input The movement of get-together and catching information Whatever goes into the PC Processing Converting or changing information into helpful yields Output Useful data, ordinarily as records as well as reports Anything that leaves a PC

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Input "Dialog" (n) Whatever goes into the PC. Info can take an assortment of structures, from charges you enter on a console to information from another PC or gadget. A gadget that bolsters information into a PC, for example, a console or mouse, is called an info gadget. (v) The demonstration of entering information into a PC

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Output "Examination" (n) Anything that leaves a PC. Yield can be important data or drivel, and it can show up in an assortment of structures - as paired numbers, as characters, as pictures, and as printed pages. Yield gadgets incorporate show screens, amplifiers, and printers. (v) To give out. For instance, show screens yield pictures, printers yield print, and amplifiers yield sounds.

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Feedback Output that is utilized to roll out improvements to info or preparing exercises Forecasting A proactive way to deal with criticism Use for evaluating future deals or stock needs

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Manual versus Modernized Systems Manual frameworks still generally utilized E.g., some speculation examiners manual draw diagrams and pattern lines to help them in settling on venture choices Computerized frameworks E.g., the above patterns lines can be drawn by PC Evolution Many mechanized framework started as manual frameworks E.g., catalog help ("411")

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Computer-based Information Systems A CBIS is made out of… Hardware Software Databases Telecommunications People Procedures Together they are… Configured to gather, control, store, and process information into data

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Technology Infrastructure Another expression for CBIS Consists of the mutual data framework (IS) assets that shape the establishment of the data framework

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Parts of a CBIS Five sections Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Networks

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Parts of a CBIS Five sections Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Networks

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Hardware Computer gear used to perform information, handling, and yield exercises The items that you can really touch, similar to plates, circle drives, show screens, consoles, printers, sheets, and chips.

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Hardware "Discourse" Hardware alludes to articles that you can really touch, similar to plates, circle drives, show screens, consoles, printers, sheets, and chips. Interestingly, programming is untouchable. Programming exists as thoughts, ideas, and images, however it has no substance. Books give a valuable similarity. The pages and the ink are the equipment, while the words, sentences, sections, and the general importance are the product. A PC without programming resembles a book brimming with clear pages - you require programming to make the PC helpful similarly as you need words to make a book significant.

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Parts of a CBIS Five sections Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Networks

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Software Computer programs that administer/decide/control the operation of the PC Computer directions or information

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Software "Examination" (1) Software is PC guidelines or information. Anything that can be put away electronically is programming. The capacity gadgets and show gadgets are equipment. The terms programming and equipment are utilized as both things and descriptive words. For instance, you can state: "The issue lies in the software," implying that there is an issue with the program or information, not with the PC itself. You can likewise say: "It\'s a product issue."

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Software "Exchange" (2) The qualification amongst programming and equipment is some of the time confounding in light of the fact that they are so indispensably connected. Unmistakably, when you buy a program, you are purchasing programming. Be that as it may, to purchase the product, you have to purchase the plate (equipment) on which the product is recorded. Programming is regularly isolated into two classifications. Frameworks programming incorporates the working framework and every one of the utilities that empower the PC to work. Applications programming incorporates programs that do genuine work for clients. For instance, word processors, spreadsheets, and database administration frameworks fall under the classification of uses programming.

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Parts of a CBIS Five sections Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Networks

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Database A sorted out accumulation of certainties and data A gathering of data composed in a manner that a PC program can rapidly choose coveted bits of information

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Database "Examination" (1) A database is an accumulation of data sorted out in a manner that a PC program can rapidly choose wanted bits of information. You can think about a database as an electronic documenting framework. Conventional databases are sorted out by fields , records , and documents . A field is a solitary p

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