Prologue to Internationalized Space Names (IDN).

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Prologue to Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) IP Symposium for CEE, CIS and Baltic States Moscow, Russia 16-19 September 2003 Robert Shaw <> ITU Internet Strategy and Policy Adviso r

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Agenda Background on ITU inclusion Definition of DNS and IDN History IETF Technical Solution Administration and Policy Directions National Experiences Tools & ITU Resources Some Reflections Future ITU Activities

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Background on ITU Involvement ITU Member States embraced two resolutions in 2002 identified with Internet names and addresses controlling ITU\'s exercises around there: Resolution 102: "Administration of Internet Domain Names and Addresses" Resolution 133: "Part of organizations of Member States in the administration of internationalized space names" "to advance adequately the part of Member States in the internationalization of area names and address of their separate dialects" Resolutions offer guidelines to Secretary-General, TSB Director, the BDT Director and the ITU Council, and in addition welcoming Member States to add to specific exercises See

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What we want to perform from our related exercises… Bring together specialists so they can share encounters for the advantage of others Document and manufacture learning base of materials accessible to ITU Member States Give preview of a portion of the continuous national exercises and their usage encounters D iscuss part of national organizations of ITU Member States and conceivable approach part they may wish to consider Discuss further agreeable measures at both territorial and universal levels, especially concerning helping creating nations in their thought of these new innovations

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The DNS Is… The "Space Name System" What individuals use to allude to PCs by name on the Internet The component by which Internet programming makes an interpretation of names to locations and the other way around A comprehensively disseminated, freely reasonable, adaptable, dependable, dynamic database The main database framework that has been effectively sent broad Which likewise rolls out it hard to improvement…

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DNS History Created in 1983 by Paul Mockapetris to address support issues with the Internet has database, affectionately recognized as HOSTS.TXT. Initially characterized in IETF RFCs 1034 and 1035, then reached out by various resulting RFCs. RFC remains for Request for Comments Standards for Internet conventions are reported by RFCs Not all Internet conventions have RFCs Not all RFCs characterize models Restricted for ~20 years to case-inhumane ASCII letters (a-z), digits (0-9) and hyphen (LDH)

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Names versus Addresses A location is the manner by which you get the chance to (course) to a system hub Often various leveled, which assists with scaling Robert Shaw, ITU, Place des Nations, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland A name is the way a hub is referenced Hierarchical name structures can help scaling formulas: chocolate: treats C:\WINDOWS\system32\drivers\disdn\ Telephone numbers have parts of both names and addresses

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DNS is a Database Keys to the database are "area names" , , Over 100,000,000 space names are presently put away Each space name contains one or more properties, known as " asset records " Each quality is independently retrievable

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Global Distribution Data is looked after locally, yet retrievable all inclusive No single PC has all DNS information DNS lookups can be performed by any Internet-associated gadget Remote DNS information is locally reserve d to enhance execution

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Demand for Multilingualism For instance, biggest rate of Internet clients are currently in the Asia-Pacific district Consequence of the Internet "globalization" is developing number of clients not acquainted with ASCII D omain names in ASCII characters posture s phonetic hindrances N ative speakers of Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Tamil, Thai and other people who use non-ASCII scripts at detriment Requirement for "internationalization" of the Internet\'s Domain Name System

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IDN is… Abbreviation for "Internationalized space name" Refers to a space name where one or more characters not in verifiable subset of Latin LDH set (a-z), digits (0-9) and hyphen (LDH) utilized as a part of the DNS Associated with Unicode (ISO 10646)- based names Major move from 38 characters to more than several thousands conceivable Unicode "code focuses"

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(Arabic) Arabic (Persian) Armenian Bengali Cyrillic (Russian) Devanagari (Hindi) Georgian Greek Gujarati Gurmukhi Han (Chinese) Hangul Hebrew Hiragana ゆにこおど Khmer Malayalam Syriac Tamil Thai "Unicode" Examples

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Some IDN History Late 1990s Multilingual space names initially created at National University of Singapore July 1998 Asia Pacific Networking Group iDNS Working gathering : advancement of the test usage of an Internationalized multilingual multiscript Domain Names Service iDomain Working Group : production of an iDNS testbed in Asia Pacific nations : China, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand .. .

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IDN History cont\'d 1998-1999 Prototypes exhibited in worldwide meetings BoFs held in universal gatherings ( APRICOT , INET) Singapore, China, Hong Kong, Korea, Japan communicated intrigues in usage Nov coal 1999 BoF in IETF Mailing list examination Jan uary 200 0 IETF IDN Working Group shaped

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IDN History cont\'d End 1999 T estbeds develop and organizations started commercialization July 2000 Multilingual Domain Names Consortium (MINC ) and Country/local associations framed (e.g. AINC, CDNC, INFITT, JDNA) March 2001 IDN Working Group framed in ICANN Board September 2001 Creation of ICANN IDN Committee

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IDN History cont\'d December 2001 ITU/WIPO/MINC Symposium ( ) December 2002 ITU Plenipotentiary Resolution 133 March 2003 Technical arrangement in RFCs 3490, 3491, 3492 distributed June 2003 ICANN distributes rules 2003… . National and local organization systems being worked on

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The IETF Technical Solution Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) Based on code focuses in Unicode (ISO 10646) Case collapsing and standardization procedure to encode Unicode representation into ASCII Compatible Encoding (ACE) Keep ASCII "on the wire" for similarity with existing programming and DNS base Domain marks begin with "xn- - " speak to ACE encoded "internationalized" name

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Relevant Technical RFCs 3490: Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) 3491: Nameprep: A Stringprep Profile for Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) 3492: Punycode: A Bootstring encoding of Unicode for Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)

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Some IDN organization & approach "works in advancement"

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Administrati on & Policy Directions Much work to do - will take numerous years Difficulties incorporate : distinguishing dependable "element" to facilitate exercises managing complex managerial and strategy plans , i ntellectual property , question determination , sensitivities identified with social and social issues MINC\'s earlier work in characterizing framework of dialects/scripts/nation depicts unpredictability See " Who is the Language Authority for Multilingual Domain Names? " in ITU instructions paper at

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Administrati on & Policy Directions No single "bland system" conceivable however bits of riddle beginning to rise… Many loops to hop through! Some portion of WSIS draft "activity arrangement" (before 2010)

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Some issues Mitigating client disarray Principle of slightest shock Example: shouldn\'t megè and lead to same end-client experience? Numerous open doors for insidiousness Some dialect scripts are significantly more intricate Definition of substantial UNICODE code focuses for dialect scripts What dialect scripts to bolster?

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Issue of Character Variants Simple case: ought to be proportionate to genè if "e" is viewed as variation of "è"? enlistment approaches in Switzerland recommend it will be… Very mind boggling samples in Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK) scripts : arrangement amongst improved and conventional Chinese, choice of "favored variations" Leads to idea of different enrollment of "space name bundles" or "packages"

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Snapshot of a few thoughts for structures admonition: fragmented…

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A Method for Registering Internationalized Domain Names Paul Hoffman: draft model enlistment system for internationalized area names drafts/draft-hoffman-idn-reg-01.txt Provides basic g eneric model for managerial courses of action

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Hoffmann draft: s uggested rehearses Before tolerating enlistments of area names into a zone, legitimate codepoints in the Unicode character ought to be characterized D ecide whether specific characters in an enlisted space name ought to bring about enlistment of various comparable space names these area names can be added to zone or obstructed from enrollment H ow to handle character variations in enrolling IDNs, and how to distribute tables that rundown the character variations

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Guidelines for enrollment strategies for Internationalized Domain Name Registration and Administration Guidelines for organization of area names that contain characters drawn from Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK) scripts. drafts/draft-jseng-idn-administrator 04.txt drafts/draft-jseng-idn-administrator 04.pdf (

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