Prologue to Linux .

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Introduction to Linux. History of Linux . The Role and Function of Linux The Historical Development of Linux Linux Distributions Common Linux Roles. The Role and Function of Linux. Application Platform Hardware Moderator Data Storage Security Connectivity.
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Prologue to Linux

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History of Linux The Role and Function of Linux The Historical Development of Linux Distributions Common Linux Roles

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The Role and Function of Linux Application Platform Hardware Moderator Data Storage Security Connectivity

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The Role and Function of Linux.. Application Platform: A working framework gives applications a stage where they can run, dealing with their entrance to the CPU and framework memory. Equipment Moderator: The working framework likewise serves as a middle person between running applications and the framework equipment. Most applications are not composed to specifically address a PC\'s equipment.

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The Role and Function of Linux.. Security: The working framework is in charge of giving a level of security to the information it has. Availability: The working framework oversees availability between PC frameworks utilizing an assortment of system media and interfaces, including infrared, Ethernet , and remote.

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The Historical Development of Linux In the mid 1990s, Torvalds got to be keen on a freeware item called Minix were composed by Andrew S. Tanenbaum . Created by Andrew S.Tanenbaum, Minix was a clone of the business UNIX working framework. Linux variant 0.02, discharged on October 5, 1991, comprised of just the Linux part and three utilities: ■ bash : an order line interface ■ redesign : an utility for flushing record framework supports ■ gcc : a C++ compiler

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In 1991, Linus Benedict Torvalds was a second year understudy of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki and a self-educated programmer.

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What is GNU? GNU Project: Richard Stallman on September 27th 1983. The GNU Project was propelled in 1984 to build up a total Unix-like working framework which is free programming : the GNU framework. GNU\'s piece isn\'t done, so GNU is utilized with the portion Linux. The blend of GNU and Linux is the GNU/Linux working framework , now utilized by millions.

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Richard Stallman, father of the GNU Project

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Nội compost chính của GNU - GPL Tác giả vẫn giữ bản quyền đối với phần mềm gốc. Người sử dụng có thể sao chép và phân phối chương trình dưới bất cứ hình thức nào và giá cả tùy ý. Người sử dụng có thể thay đổi một phần của chương trình và phân phối thay đổi của mình cùng toàn bộ phần mềm cho người khác, với điều kiện nói rõ phần mình thay đổi. Nếu những thay đổi không thể tách rời toàn bộ phần mềm thì GNU GPL sẽ mở rộng sang những thay đổi đó. Người sử dụng không được thông báo bản quyền. Phải đảm bảo cung cấp mã nguồn khi bán một sản phẩm theo GNU GPL để người khác có thể sử dụng và/hoặc bán tiếp. Người dùng kế tiếp có đầy đủ quyền lợi như của người trước.

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Linux Distributions Today there are many diverse circulations accessible prominent Linux dispersions incorporate ■ SUSE Linux ■ TurboLinux ■ Fedora Linux ■ Mandrake Linux ■ Red Hat Enterprise Linux ■ Lycoris Linux ■ Debian Linux ■ CentOS ■ Linspire ■ ALT Linux ■ Gentoo Linux ■ Ubuntu ■Slackware Linux

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Distributions.. Programming Packages Installer Re-design Update/Patch Commercial Software User Guide

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An incredible table giving a diagram and examination of most Linux appropriations is accessible at

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Roles of Linux Desktop Server Firewall

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Linux on the Desktop First, there has been an authentic absence of desktop efficiency applications accessible for Linux. The second issue is that the normal client tends to discover Linux to some degree threatening.

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Linux as a Server ■ File Server Using the Network File System (NFS) or Samba benefit, Linux can be designed to give arrange capacity of clients\' documents. ■ Print Server Using the Common UNIX Printing System (CUPS) and Samba benefits together, Linux can be arranged to give shared printing to network clients. ■ Database Server Linux works extraordinary as a database server. There are an assortment of database administrations accessible for Linux servers, including MySQL and PostgreSQL.

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Linux as a Server.. ■ Web Server Linux is additionally broadly conveyed as a Web server. The most famous Web benefit as of now utilized on Linux is the Apache Web server. ■ E-Mail Server There are an assortment of various email administrations accessible for Linux that can transform your framework into a venture class email server.

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Linux as a Server.. Linux is to a great degree stable . Basically, a Linux server once in a while crashes. It just continues running and running.Fast Linux servers are quick . Numerous benchmark tests have been run setting Linux servers against other server working frameworks. Linux servers are substantially less costly . Most other server working frameworks charge costly per-situate permitting charges, making them extremely costly to send in expansive systems.

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Components of Linux The Linux Kernel Libraries Utilities User Interface

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Linux Command-Line Interface ■ Linux shells: A shell is a charge mediator that permits you to sort orders from the console to communicate with the working framework portion. ■ sh (Bourne Shell) The sh shell was the soonest shell, being produced for UNIX back in the late 1970s. ■ bash (Bourne-Again Shell) The bash shell is an enhanced variant of the sh shell and is a standout amongst the most prevalent shells today. It\'s the default shell utilized by most Linux circulations. ■ csh (C Shell) The csh shell was initially produced for BSD UNIX. It utilizes a punctuation that is fundamentally the same as C programming. ■ tsch The tsch shell is an enhanced variant of the C Shell. It is the default shell utilized on FreeBSD frameworks. ■ zsh (Z Shell) The Z Shell is an enhanced form of the bash shell.

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Linux Command-Line Interface Libraries are pre-composed code "pieces" that application software engineers use in their projects. Utilities keeping up the record framework, altering content documents, overseeing running procedures, and putting in new programming bundles. UI summon line interface (CLI) and a graphical UI (GUI).

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Linux Command-Line Interface..

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Commonly Used CLI Commands and Utilities/: signify root index ./: indicate current registry PATH : ■ end This charge close down the working framework, yet must be controlled by the root client. ■ reboot This summon close down and restarts the working framework. It likewise must be controlled by root.

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Commonly Used CLI Commands ■ init 0 This order additionally close down the working framework, and must be controlled by your root client. ■ init 6 This charge likewise close down and restarts the working framework. It additionally must be controlled by root. ■ man: is charge. Ex: man ls

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Commands… ■ su (switch client) This order switches the present client to another client account. This charge is most every now and again used to change to the superuser root account. Truth be told, on the off chance that you don\'t supply a username, this utility expect that you need to change to the root account. On the off chance that you enter su - , then you will change to the root client account and have the greater part of root\'s surroundings factors connected.

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Commands… ■ env This order shows the earth factors for the as of now signed in client. ■ reverberate This order is utilized to resound a line of content on the screen. It\'s often used to show environment factors. Ex: reverberate $PATH

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Commands… ■ beat This charge is an extremely helpful summon that shows a rundown of all applications and procedures as of now running on the framework. ■ which This summon is utilized to show the full way to a shell charge or utility. Ex: which ls It show:/container/ls

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Commands… ■ whoami This summon shows the username of the at present signed in client. ■ netstat This charge shows the status of the system, including current associations, steering tables, and so on ■ course This summon is utilized to see or control the framework\'s directing table. ■ ifconfig This order is utilized to oversee arrange sheets introduced in the framework. It can be utilized to show or change your system board setup parameters.

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Linux Graphical User Interface XFree86 extend built up a free windows framework that gives a GUI on the Linux working framework. Utilizing X Windows alongside a window administrator and a desktop situation, (for example, GNOME or KDE ), clients can connect with the Linux part utilizing a mouse rather than the console.

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Phần mã nguồn mở (free and open programming) GNU Linux Đặc trưng GNU/Linux các bản phân phối (conveyances) Các thành phần trong Linux OS

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