Prologue to Plants.

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vessels for transport and backing. Greeneries & Liverworts: The Bryophytes. In the first place area plants ... Gnetum house plants. Ephedra weight reduction, sensitivities & asthma ...
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Prologue to Plants Mrs. M. Rightler

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Earliest Plants Algae Phytoplankton Lived in the ocean

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Problem Drying Out Making Food Reproduction Gravity & Support Getting water & supplements Solution Waxy fingernail skin, stomata Formed leaves Develops spores & seeds Bark (plug) & vessels Roots & vessels Problems with life ashore

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Types of Plants Avascular Bryophytes nonseed plants Tracheophytes vessels for transport and backing

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Mosses & Liverworts: The Bryophytes First land plants AVASCULAR = little 500 m.y.a. Must develop in damp situations Used for fuel (peat)

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Reproduction in Bryophytes Mosses have a protonema (liverworts don\'t) Sexual multiplication Antheridium – makes sperm Archaegonium – makes eggs Asexual proliferation Fragmentation Formation of gemmae

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Tracheophytes Vessels XYLEM = transports water & broke up minerals from roots to leaves PHLOEM = transports sugars from leaves to rest of plant Spores or seeds for generation

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Club Mosses (Lycophyta) Leaves produce spores Strobilus = spore-bearing leaves Prothallus = produces antheridia & archaegonia

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Horsetails (Sphenophyta) Jointed stems Reproduction like club greenery

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Ferns (Pterophyta) 400 m.y.a. Overwhelming structure = sporophyte Structure Rhizome = underground stem Fronds = leaves Sori = store spores on underside of fronds

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Gymnosperms Gymno = "stripped" Sperm = "seed" First plants to create seeds No blossoms No organic product

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Why Make Seeds? Has own sustenance supply Protective coat against brutal conditions Some are intended for go to new ranges

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Sporophytes produce: MICROSPORE Produce male gametophyte Produce dust MEGASPORE Produce female gametophyte Produce ovule (makes archaegonia with egg cells)

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Gymnosperm Reproduction Pollen grains conveyed by wind Land on ovule, create dust tube Sperm travel through tube to treat egg Fertilized egg = ZYGOTE EMBRYO = youthful, diploid sporophyte plant COTYLEDONS = nourishment stockpiling for developing life, turn out to be first leaves

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Why Pollen Instead of Spores? Plant can live in extremely dry ranges Fertilization does not require water Pollen has defensive coat and sustenance supply for sperm

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Why Ovules Instead of Archaegonia? Defensive tissues avert drying out Ovule holds archaegonia and shields eggs from components

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Minor Gymnosperm Groups Cycadophyta (1 st in Triassic Era) Ginkgophyta Only one species today Ginkgo biloba Most lived 200 m.y.a. Gnetophyta – just three genera Gnetum – house plants Ephedra – weight reduction, sensitivities & asthma Welwitschia

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Coniferophyta (biggest gathering) Needle or scale-like leaves Bear seeds in woody cones Can live in exceptionally frosty atmospheres Most are evergreens Have wood Made of thick-walled vessels (TRACHEIDS) Tracheids are xylem

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Angiosperms Angio – "blossom" Sperm – "seed" Extremely various All have seeds encased in organic product

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Cambium Any development tissue in plants Types of cambium Vascular = produces xylem & phloem Cork = produces stopper (bark)

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Overall Structures [121] Roots Stems Leaves Flowers

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Roots [124] Absorb water & supplements Hold plant set up Root sorts: Fibrous Tap Prop Aerial

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Stems [123] Support leaves & blooms Sometimes photosynthesis Transport (contain xylem & phloem) Types herbaceous – green & adaptable Woody – firm, have plug layer, normally chestnut

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Leaves [119] Cuticle = assurance Stomata = gas trade, water misfortune ( transpiration ) Epidermis = insurance, shading Mesophyll Palisade = most PHOTOSYNTHESIS Spongy = Vascular groups gone through it

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Flowers [131] Pistils = female conceptive structures Stamens = male regenerative structures Complete blossoms Have petals & sepals Have male and female parts Incomplete blooms = missing one or more parts

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Monocots mono = "one" cot = "seed leaf" Approx. 60,000 species Flowers = products of 3 Leaf veins parallel Dicots di = "two" cot = "seed leaf" Approx. 170,000 species Flowers = products of 4 or 5 Leaf veins stretching Types of Angiosperms [115]

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Plant Tropisms Tropism = plant reaction to outer jolt Positive: plant moves toward boost Negative: plant moves far from boost Types: Phototropism = light Gravitropism = gravity Thigmotropism = touch ( nastic development – heading does not make a difference)

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Plant Hormones Hormone – substance created in one a player in a creature that affects an alternate part of the life form Types Auxins – control development Gibberellins – speeds development, germination Abscisic corrosive – torpidity, close stomata, stress Ethylene – ages organic product

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