Prologue to Theory Address 4 Thomas Aquinas and an Introduction to Logic of Religion.

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Aquinas. Holy person Thomas Aquinas Lived from 1225-1274.A minister whose works have been regarded legitimate by the Catholic Church.In 1244 turned into a monk. Later he turned into a cleric and in 1323 was made a Saint.Heavily affected by the works of Aristotle.In his work Summa Theologica he gave 5 distinctive argument\'s for God\'s existence.He called these the 5 ways. .
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Prologue to Philosophy Lecture 4 Thomas Aquinas & an Intro to Philosophy of Religion By David Kelsey

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Aquinas Saint Thomas Aquinas Lived from 1225-1274. A friar whose works have been esteemed definitive by the Catholic Church. In 1244 turned into a monk. Later he turned into a cleric and in 1323 was made a Saint. Vigorously impacted by the works of Aristotle. In his work Summa Theologica he gave 5 distinctive contention\'s for God\'s presence. He called these the 5 ways.

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Aquinas on Aristotle Aquinas on Aristotle: Aquinas was significantly impacted by the works of Aristotle. Be that as it may, Aquinas thinks there is a principal botch in Aristotle\'s power. Aquinas thinks Aristotle ignores the idea of presence. Aristotle on presence: Form is the thing that realizes a probability, matter, into a really existing thing. Also, proficient aims are what bring a specific substance into being. Yet, the world, existing unceasingly, has no proficient purpose. Presence is simply conceived in its structure.

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Aquinas on presence So for Aristotle, Form carries presence alongside it. Be that as it may, for Aquinas, a things presence varies from its quintessence. The pith of any substance is both matter and frame for such an article is not quite the same as something absolutely formal… For something fanciful like a phoenix, its quintessence being structure and matter, it needs presence. So presence is something added to those substances that do in truth exist. Moreover for otherworldly substances, they are made out of immaculate structure and presence. It is this new comprehension of presence which drives Aquinas to reexamine Aristotle\'s thought of productive causation and in this way God\'s presence as unaffected mover. We now swing to Aquinas\' renowned 5 ways…

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Theism There are 3 general contention designs for Theism. Belief in a higher power, Atheism & Agnosticism We have so far seen one of these contention designs: the Ontological contention. Ontological Arguments: Argue that by an investigation of the very idea of God he should exist. Cosmological Arguments: The type of the contention is generally this: There must be a first reason for all things and this first cause must be God. Teleological Arguments: Argue for God\'s presence by means of premises about the configuration or objectives or reasons for things.

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The 5 ways The 5 ways: The principal path: about things bringing on change in different things. The second path: about \'proficient causation The third route: about things making others exist The fourth path: about things making others be great or respectable. The last path: about purposes.

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Aquinas\' 5 ways The initial 4 ways: Different variants of the Cosmological contention. Every way utilizes an alternate feeling of the word \'cause\'. For every situation Aquinas needs to demonstrate that there is an uncaused cause… All Cosmological contentions have a structure this way: 1. There is something that causes everything else, I.e. a first cause. 2. No one but God could be a first cause. 3. Consequently, there is a God. The last way: an adaptation of the teleological contention.

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The primary way The type of the principal way: 1) Things change. 2) Change is a modification in which something turns out to be really what it was just conceivably until then. 3) Everything that progressions must be rolled out to improvement by something else. 4) But in the event that one thing causes change in another, either the cause is a first reason for change or it is brought about to change by another (from 3) 5) There couldn\'t be an open causal chain of changing changers doing a reversal always into the past. 6) Thus, there is a perpetual changer, a first reason for change. (from 1 & 5) 7) And this first cause is God.

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Aquinas\' contention for the third start The third commence: 3) Everything that progressions must be changed by something else. A change from possibility to fact must be realized by something that is as of now real. The ball and hitter… Nothing can be both potential and genuine in the same appreciation. So nothing can change itself. Musings on this contention? Will you consider anything that could change itself?

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Aquinas\' contention for the fifth introduce The fifth reason: There couldn\'t be an open causal chain of changing changers doing a reversal everlastingly into the past. For this situation there is no first reason for change Open causal chain: a limitless number of things, one bringing about change in the other… Ball and Batter… But then there couldn\'t be any middle causes either Such causes could just purpose change if completed themselves by some earlier cause. Ball and Batter once more… But in the event that there weren\'t any middle of the road changers there would be no change by any stretch of the imagination. Musings on this contention? Is it conceivable that we have moderate reasons for change without a first cause? Perhaps there is another plausibility: a shut circle of transitional changers…

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Evaluating the primary way The main reason: says essentially that things change. Change: Aquinas implies the sort of progress we find in the ball when it is hit by the bat. The fourth start: Assuming that everything that progressions must be changed by something else, on the off chance that one thing causes change in another, either the cause is a first reason for change or it is brought on to change by another. The fifth reason: There is a constant changer, a first reason for change. This thing isn\'t changed by whatever else. It can bring about change however. Domino\'s… Question: why assume that there is only one constant changer? The conclusion: This first cause is God Question: why assume this first cause is God?

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The Second Way The Second way: 1) effective aims come in arrangement Something can\'t be the productive reason for itself for to be so it would need to preexist itself, which is impractical. Furthermore, on the off chance that you take away a cause you produce away its results 2) Such arrangement of effective aims couldn\'t go ahead to unendingness If the arrangement were unbounded there would be no first cause. On the off chance that there were no first cause there would be no middle of the road causes... 3) So there must be a first productive cause 4) this everybody gives the name God

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Evaluating the Second way Challenging the Second way: Some things to notice: Notice the closeness between the first and second ways… The second way is centered around a particular sort of causation, proficient causation. A proficient aim causes something to come to be Example: the mallet, the flash and the blast Evaluating the premises: Premise 1 Questions? Premise 2 Questions? Premise 3 Questions? The conclusion: Questions?

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The Third Way Two courses in which a thing can exist: Necessary things can\'t neglect to exist. Unforeseen things come into and leave presence. The third way: 1. A few things must exist of need. 2. There can\'t be an open causal chain of important things every creating the by be essential. 3. In this way, something must be \'vital in essence\'. 4, And this is God.

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The primary commence The main reason: Says that something must be important. So not all that matters can be unexpected. His contention: 1) consider if everything existed unexpectedly. 2) All unforeseen things must begin to exist sooner or later. 3) So all unexpected things must neglect to exist sooner or later. (from 2) 4) But then there more likely than not been a period at which nothing existed. (from 1 & 3) 5) But in the event that there had been such a period nothing would exist now. From nothing you don\'t get anything 6) But things do exist now. 7) Something must exist of need. This thing brought on unexpected things to come to be.

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Finishing the third way The second introduce: says that there can\'t be an open causal chain of essential things every bringing on the by be important. His contention: For this situation there is no first reason for change. In any case, then there couldn\'t be any middle of the road causes thus no change by any means… Question? The third introduce: says that something must be \'vital in essence\' Necessary Per Se: Something that owes it\'s need to nothing else it can bring about the need of different things however. Question? The conclusion: Questions?

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The Fourth Way The fourth way: 1) Some things are great (respectable and genuine). 2) Some things are better (or more respectable or more genuine) than different things. 3) These better (more honorable and more genuine) things have all the more great (are more respectable and are more genuine) as per their separation from a most extreme. Similar judgments… 4) if something that is maximally valid, great and respectable were not in presence then there would be no things having truth, goodness and honorability to a lesser degree. So whatever is maximally great (respectable and genuine) is the reason for whatever else that is great 5) Thus, something is maximally great and causes everything else that is great (from 1 & 4) 6) This maximally good thing we call GOD.

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Finishing the contention Something to notice: Notice the claim that this contention makes to the immense chain of being… The initial 3 premises: The fourth start: Question: This appears to suggest that the maximally good thing is the reason for whatever else is great. Questions? Premise 5: The conclusion:

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The Fifth Way: the contention from configuration The contention from outline: 1. A machine is the impact of knowledge For each clock… 2. The world resemble a machine It is a requested entirety. Newtonian mechanics lets us know so. So the world resemble a clock… 3. Consequently, the world is the impact of some knowledge A contention a posteriori: it is a contention that relies on experience and matters of certainty… A contention by relationship: Since universes resemble machines and machines have fashioners so too does the world have an originator. A causal contention: The main reason and conclusion…

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Critiquing the Argument from outline Critiquing the contention from configuration: Note: These reactions are taken from David Hume\'s Dialogs on Natural Religion… 1. A posteriori contentions are never legitimate and can never involve their decisions. Along these lines, the most the contention from configuration can give us is likelihood…

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