Prologue to Toxicology.

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Prologue to Toxicology. A Brief Prologue to the Ideas of Toxicology We Will Be Utilizing All through This Course. Units Used to Gauge Chemicals in The earth. PPM – Parts per million PPB – Parts per billion PPT – Parts per trillion. A basic shape 1 cubic meter in volume. 1m.
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Prologue to Toxicology A Brief Introduction to the Concepts of Toxicology We Will Be Using Throughout This Course

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Units Used to Measure Chemicals in the Environment PPM – Parts per million PPB – Parts for each billion PPT – Parts for each trillion

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A basic solid shape 1 cubic meter in volume 1m

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Is framed of 1,000,000 3D squares, 1 cubic centimeter each 100cm x 100cm x 100cm = 1,000,000cc 100cm In 1 m 3 piece 1cc = 1ppm 100cm

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One section for every million is 1 inch in 16 miles 1 minute in two years 1 penny in $10,000 1 ounce of salt in 31 tons of potato chips 1 rotten one in 2,000 barrels of apples

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Divide each 1cc square into 1,000 blocks 0.1cm on a side 1cm 0.1cm x 0.1cm x 0.1cm = 0.001cm 3 In 1 m 3 piece 0.001cm 3 = 0.001cc or 1ppb 1cm

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One section for each billion is 1 inch in 16,000 miles 1 second in 32 years 1 penny in $10,000,000 1 squeeze of salt in 10 tons of potato chips 1 throw in 1,200,000 tennis matches 1 rotten one in 2,000,000 barrels of apples

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And separation each 0.1cc square into 1,000 pieces 0.01cm on a side 0.1cm 0.01cm x 0.01cm x 0.01cm = 0.000001cm 3 0.1cm In 1 m 3 square .000,000,001m 3 = 0.000,001cc or 1ppt 0.1cm

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One section for each trillion is 1 postage stamp in the city\'s zone of Dallas 1 inch in 16 million miles (more than 600 times around the earth) 1 second in 320 centuries 1 bug on 360 million elephants 1 grain of sugar in an Olympic estimated pool 1 rotten one in 2 billion barrels

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Important Concept On the left half of the decimal point (  . ) 1 trillion is greater than 1 billion 1 billion is greater than 1 million 1 million is greater than 1 thousand… On the right half of the decimal point ( . ) 1 section for each trillion is littler than 1 section for each billion 1 section for every billion is littler than 1 section for each million 1 section for every million is littler than 1 section for each thousand

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Important Relationship For water at STP (standard temperature [23 o C] and weight [15 psi]) 1 cc = 1ml = 1g

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Which implies that 1 liter of water = 1 kg 1 mg/kg = 1 ppm 1mm 3/liter = 1 ppm 1 mg/liter = 1 ppm

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Measures of Toxicity of chemicals is resolved in the research center The ordinary strategy is to uncover test creatures By ingestion, application to the skin, by inward breath, gavage, or some other system which brings the material into the body, or By setting the test material in the water or demeanor of the test animals’ environment

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Measures of Toxicity is measured as clinical “endpoints” which incorporate Mortality (demise) Teratogenicity (capacity to bring about conception imperfections) Carcinogenicity (capacity to bring about tumor), and, Mutagenicity (capacity to bring about heritible change in the DNA) At this time we will examine 2 measures of mortality – the LD 50 and the LC 50

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Measures of Toxicity: The Median Lethal Dose LD 50 The sum (dosage) of a compound which delivers passing in half of a populace of test creatures to which it is regulated by any of a mixed bag of routines mg/kg Normally communicated as milligrams of substance per kilogram of creature body weight

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Measures of Toxicity: The Median Lethal Concentration LC 50 The centralization of a synthetic in a domain (by and large air or water) which creates passing in half of an uncovered populace of test creatures in a predefined time allotment mg/L Normally communicated as milligrams of substance per liter of air or water (or as ppm)

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Primary Routes of Exposure to Pesticides There are three essential courses by which life forms are presented to pesticides Oral Dermal Inhalation

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Primary Routes of Exposure: Oral Exposure Any introduction to pesticide which happens when the concoction is taken in through the mouth and goes through the gastrointestinal tract During oral presentation, albeit conveyed inside of the body, the pesticide is still outside of the body cavity

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Primary Routes of Exposure: Dermal Exposure of the skin to a pesticide Most basic course of human introduction With fitting cleanliness this sort of presentation is by and large not genuine unless there is a particular, quick toxicological impact (frequently eye impacts) which is of concern

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Primary Routes of Exposure: Inhalation Exposure Occurs when a pesticide is inhaled into the lungs through the nose or mouth Significant course of presentation for oceanic life forms Not of toxicological worry until it crosses from the lung into the body (unless the compound is destructive)

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Duration of Exposure Three terms are usually used to depict the length of time of dose(s) Acute Chronic Subchronic

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Duration of Exposure: Acute Exposure Application of a solitary or short-term (for the most part not as much as a day) dosing by a compound If harmful indications are communicated, they are alluded to as side effects of “acute toxicity”

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Duration of Exposure: Chronic Exposure Expression of poisonous side effects strictly when rehashed presentation to a compound in measurements consistently connected to the life form for a period more noteworthy than a large portion of its future If dangerous side effects are communicated, they are alluded to as manifestations of “chronic toxicity”

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Duration of Exposure: Subchronic Exposure Toxic side effects are communicated after rehashed applications for a time span not as much as a large portion of the living being\'s future – however more regularly than a solitary dosage or various measurements connected for just a brief while If lethal side effects are communicated, they are alluded to as side effects of “subchronic toxicity”

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Remember – For pesticides – toning it down would be best when managing harmfulness The less you have to bring about a lethal impact – the more poisonous the substance is Thus a LD 50 of 25 mg/kg is more dangerous than is one of 7,000 mg/kg

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Words again Safe Low Risk

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Signal Words The relative intense lethality of a pesticide is pondered the name as a “signal word” The (toxicologically) proper sign word MUST show up on each pesticide name The three conceivable sign words are CAUTION WARNING DANGER

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Signal Words: CAUTION “Caution” mirrors the least level of relative harmfulness All pesticides with a LD 50 of more prominent than 500 mg/kg must show this word on their name Actually incorporates two gatherings of pesticides – those classed by the EPA as “Relatively nontoxic (>5,000 mg/kg) and those classed as “slightly toxic” (500 – 5,000 mg/kg)

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Signal Words: WARNING “Warning” mirrors a middle of the road level of relative danger All pesticides with a LD 50 of more prominent than 50 and under 500 mg/kg must show this word on their mark Pesticides in this classification are classed as “moderately toxic”

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Signal Words: DANGER “Danger” mirrors the most noteworthy level of relative harmfulness All pesticides with a LD 50 of under 50 mg/kg must show this word on their name Pesticides here are classed as “highly toxic”

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POISON!!! Legitimately characterized term – not simply anything you don’t like Any pesticide with a LD 50 of 50 mg/kg or less Labels must mirror this grouping Label must have the sign word “DANGER” in addition to the word “POISON” Label additionally must show the skull and crossbones symbol

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Relative lethality Organisms can’t separate in the middle of “natural” and “synthetic” chemicals “Synthetic” does not mean harmful or toxic “Natural” does not mean protected or even generally safe Chemicals must be assessed in their natural setting of conduct in living beings Mode of activity, not source, is the worry of toxicologists and educated clients of pesticides

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Relative poisonous quality Most herbicides follow up on organic pathways not display in people Those affirmed for utilization in the Region (a great deal more about these later!!) have LD 50 s of 50 mg/kg or more prominent – they have halfway or moderately low harmfulness Some of the bug sprays utilized are exceptionally dangerous

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Relative lethality Some samples of pesticides and different chemicals are given to show relative danger of pesticides in the earth in which we experience This is NOT to trivialize the pesticides Always treat them with alert and regard But, have a practical acknowledgment of their relative danger in a universe of dangers

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Relative poisonous quality: Insecticides TCDD (Dioxin) 0.1 mg/kg Parathion 13.0 mg/kg Nicotine 50.0 mg/kg Carbaryl 270.0 Malathion 370.0 mg/kg

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mg/kg Paraquat 95 2,4-D 375 2,4-DP 532 Triclopyr 630 Tebuthiuron 644 Dicamba 757 Hexazinone 1,690 Glyphosate 4,320 mg/kg Limonene 5,000 Clopyralid >5,000 Sulfometuron Met.. >5,000 Imazapyr >5,000 Diesel oil 7,380 Picloram 8,200 Fosamine am.. 24,400 Kerosene 28,000 Relative Toxicity: Herbicides and Additives

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Highly lethal chemicals 0 – 50 mg/kg range (taste 1 teaspoonful) mg/kg Botulinus poison 0.00001 Dioxin 0.1 Parathion 13.0 Strychnine 30.0 Nicotine 50.0 Moderately harmful chemicals 50- - 500 mg/kg range (teaspoonful 1 ounce) mg/kg Paraquat 95 Caffeine 200 Carbaryl 270 Malathion 370 2,4-D 375 Relative Toxicity: Comparative data

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Slightly poisonous chemicals 500 – 5,000 mg/kg range (1 ounce 1 half quart) mg/kg 2,4-DP 532 Triclpoyr 630 Tebuthiuron 644 Dicamba 757 mg/kg Formaldehyde 800 Hexazinone 1,690 As

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