Quantifier Bringing up in a Top-Down Language structure.


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Quantifier Raising in a Top-Down Grammar Valentina Bianchi & Cristiano Chesi University of Siena XVII Colloquium on Generative Grammar Girona, June 13, 2007

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The underlying digestion QR is another case of Move (1) a. Mary see who  Who did Mary see t ? b. Mary saw no one  Nobody Mary saw t . Inspiration for LF-undercover language structure Similar territory imperatives (Cecchetto 2004) (2) a. An expert will whine [if you harm each plane ]. ( >, * > ) b. * What will an expert whine [if you harm t ]? (3) a. Which film did you see t ? a\'. * Which motion picture did you see t and welcome \'\'The House of Mirth\'\'? b. An (alternate) understudy prefers each teacher . ( >, > ) b\'. A (#different) understudy loves each educator and abhors the senior member. ( >, * > ) Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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Move , as of June 2007 Agree as a sub-operation of Move  Move is highlight driven Phase Impenetrability Condition  Move is progressive cyclic The "solid" highest event is spelled out  Move is obvious and (for the most part) leftward Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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QR , as of June 2007 Standard QR is not include driven and doesn\'t focus on a particular position: free adjunction QR = A-development (Hornstein, 1995) QR targets settled positions (Beghelli & Stowell, 1997) Exception: negative and focussed expressions (Longobardi 1991, Kayne 1981) Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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QR , as of June 2007 b) Standard QR is not progressive cyclic ; it is provision bound (strained proviso limit). (4) Someone expected [ CP that each Republican would win]. (  >  ; *  >  ) (Exception: indefinites, Reinhart 1997 ) ≠ Cecchetto (2004): QR complies with the PIC. "Cyclic" strides are conceivable in the event that they are semantically inspired. Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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QR , as of June 2007 c1) Standard QR is secret (yet see Szabolsci 1997, Kayne 1998 ). With cyclic Transfer, this no more takes after from the engineering of the sentence structure. c2) Fox & Nissenbaum (1999), Fox (2002): QR must be rightward. (5) a. We [[saw a depiction ] yesterday] b. We [[[saw a depiction ] yesterday] < an artwork >] c. We [[[saw a sketch ] yesterday] < a depiction > by John] Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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Tacking stock QR is not an all around carried on occasion of Move (e.g. Beghelli & Stowell: highlight driven, yet not cyclic; Cecchetto: PIC-agreeable, but rather not include driven). The undercover way of QR no more takes after from the design of the sentence structure. Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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Reversing the point of view Main claim: The extraordinary properties of QR take after on the off chance that we accept a top-down, left-to-right calculation isolated in stages (Phillips 1996, Chesi 2004, Bianchi & Chesi 2006) more or less: evacuate the QP since not LF-interpretable re-combine it in a position when it can take a sufficient contention/atomic extension Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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Formalizing a moderate sentence structure Feature Structures (vocabulary + parameterization) Universals (basic imperatives + economy conditions) Structure Building Operations (consolidate, move, stage) Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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1 – Feature Structures base = { N , V } select = { base  licensors } Only TWO fundamental classifications: Nouns and Verbs (e.g. [ V give]) Lexical choice (e.g. [ =DP =PP V give]) Ordered arrangements of utilitarian elements (e.g. [ =DP =PP ... +Mood ... +T ... V give]; DP  [ +D N ] ; PP  [ +K +D N ] ) Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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2 – Universals B predominance : B > A B > C B A B C priority : <A, B, C> Linearization Principle (enlivened by LCA , Kayne 1994) if An overwhelms B, then either a. A goes before B if B is a supplement of A (that is, A chooses B), or b. B goes before An if B is in an utilitarian projection of A + time Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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3 - Structure Building Operations V gives N John a. Combine (consolidate right, Phillips 1996) Lexicon: {[ =DP =PP V gives], [ +K (N) to], [ +D N John], [ +D N children], [ +D N candies]} blend ([ =DP =PP V gives], [ +D N John])

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3 - Structure Building Operations V gives V < gives> N John a. Consolidate (combine right, Phillips 1996) Lexicon: {[ =DP =PP V gives], [ +K (N) to], [ +D N John], [ +D N children], [ +D N candies]} blend ([ =DP =PP V gives], [ +D N John])

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3 - Structure Building Operations a. Blend (combine right, Phillips 1996) Lexicon: {[ =DP =PP V gives], [ +K (N) to], [ +D N John], [ +D N children], [ +D N candies]} consolidate ([ =DP =PP V gives], [ +D N John]) blend ([ =DP =PP V gives], [ +D N candies]) V gives V N John V < gives> V < gives> N confections

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3 - Structure Building Operations a. Combine (consolidate right, Phillips 1996) Lexicon: {[ =DP =PP V gives], [ +K (N) to], [ +D N John], [ +D N children], [ +D N candies]} blend ([ =DP =PP V gives], [ +D N John]) blend ([ =DP =PP V gives], [ +D N candies]) combine ([ =DP =PP V gives], [ +K +D N to kids ]) V gives V N John V < gives> V N confections V < gives> N to youngsters

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3 - Structure Building Operations V Force ... (left outskirts) V Mood V ... Useful Sequence (licensor highlights) Asp V head Selected Phase(s) (select components) M(ove)- Buffer c. MOVE Linearization Principle (motivated by Kayne\'s LCA) if An instantly overwhelms B, then either a. <A, B> if A chooses B as a contention, or b. <B, A> if B is in an utilitarian determination of An e.g. " the kid kissed the young lady" Success condition: M-buffer(s) must be void toward the end of the calculation b. Stage (PROJECTION) Phase determination prerequisite : stages must be appropriately (authorized/)chose [ +T kiss] [ =s =o kiss] the kid [ =s =o kiss] kissed [ =o kiss] V <the boy> the young lady the kid M-Buffer

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Successive Cyclic A\'- development Who do Lic. you Sel. who = 1 st Nested Phase (DP) you = 2 nd Nested Phase (DP) Matrix Phase (CP) that = Selected Phase (CP) trust you <you> who <who> that who M(ove)- Buffer (Matrix Phase, CP) John respects <who> (6) Wh o i do you accept [ t wh o that John appreciates t wh o ] ? Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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To compress Every calculation is a top-down procedure separated in stages . Each lexical stage head licenses a left-hand utilitarian area and some right-hand chose positions. A stage n gets shut when all the practical and selectional determinations of its head are fulfilled. Any inner constituent will be a computationally settled stage . The Move operation stores an unselected component found before (i.e. on the left of) the head position in the neighborhood M-cradle of the present stage , and releases it in a chose position if conceivable; if not, when the stage is shut the substance of the memory cushion is acquired by that of the least chosen stage (the consecutive stage , Chesi 2004). Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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M1 4 2 P2 P3 1 3 What did John purchase t P3 <P2> What John <P3> P3 P4 P2 P1 P5 A key asymmetry Overt development : the framework first registers the dislodged event in a practically authorized (criterial) position, stores the component in a M(ove)- memory support , and afterward searches for a chose position where the component can be re-combined. Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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M1 Q1 P4 P2 2 4 1 3 each book Mary gave <P4> Mary t P2 to Sue P4 P5 P2 P3 P1 P6 A major asymmetry Quantifier Raising : the framework processes the QP in a contention position which is PF-interpretable yet not LF-interpretable, stores the QP in a Q(uantifier)- memory support , and re-consolidates it at the point where it can be appropriately deciphered (i.e., toward the end of the stage). Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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A usage of QR Compute a QP and spell it out in the chose (or practically authorized ) position inside stage n . Embed the QP in the Q-cushion of stage n with file i (QP i ) Insert a variable with list i in the chose position. Toward the end of the calculation of stage n , recover QP i from the Q-support of n and append it to the structure worked in stage n . Achievement Condition: toward the end of any stage n , the Q-cushion of n must be void . Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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QR – test inference <every book i > Fuctional projections (7) Mary gave each book to Sue Mary VP shells gave V <Mary> x i each book Mary to John M(ove)- Buffer each book i Q(uantifier)- Buffer Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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Main Consequences The re-consolidate position is (as typically) secretive The re-combine position of QR takes after the calculation of the chose position: "rightward" development . The condition boundedness of QR is a "right rooftop" impact, comparing to a last stage limit. Bianchi & Chesi – QR in a Top-Down Grammar

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3 4 M1 Q1 1 P2 P4 2 Mary saw <P4> We t P2 a work of art yesterday P5 P2 P3 P4 P1 by John P6 1. Clandestineness The position registered first is " PF-interpretable " ( criterial or argumental position ) and the QP eliminate is spelled there, before capacity in the Q-cradle Remerge positions are by and large unpronounced (Chesi 2004) It is conceivable to execute Late Merge à la Fox & Nissenbaum (1999) Bianchi & Chesi

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