Radiographic Intensifying Screens There are three key parts of the Image Receptor for Conventional Radiography: Film to record the picture Intensifying Screens to uncover the film Cassette to ensure the screens and filmSlide 2
Radiographic Intensifying Screens Less than 1% of the episode x-beams interface with the film to add to the idle picture. The increasing screens changes over the leftover radiation to light than produces the idle picture. They go about as an intensifier of the remainder radiation.Slide 3
Radiographic Intensifying Screens About 30% of the x-beams hitting the screens cooperate with the screens delivering an extensive number of noticeable light photons. The utilization of increasing screens brings about impressive lower radiation measurement to the patient however has the weakness of creating a slight obscuring of the picture.Slide 4
Radiographic Intensifying Screens Most customary radiographic tapes have a couple of screens that sandwich the film. This configuration utilized twofold emulsion film.Slide 5
Screen Construction Four Distinct Layers Protective Coating Phosphor Reflective layer BaseSlide 6
Protective Coating is straightforward to light. Impervious to scraped spot and harm from taking care of. Impervious to electricity produced via friction Provide a surface for cleaning while ensuring the phosphors.Slide 7
Phosphors The dynamic layer of the screen is the phosphors. The phosphors emanate light when invigorated by x-beams. Before 1970 the most widely recognized phosphor was a crystalline type of Calcium Tungstate.Slide 8
Phosphors Modern screens use uncommon earth components, for example, Gadolinium Lanthanum YttriumSlide 9
Properties of Phosphors utilized as a part of Intensifying Screens High nuclear number so x-beam ingestion will be high. Quantum Detective Efficiency Emit a lot of light for every x-beam retention. Change Efficiency Light should be of legitimate wavelength to coordinate the affectability of the film Spectral MatchingSlide 10
Properties of Phosphors utilized as a part of Intensifying Screens Phosphor Afterglow ought to be negligible. Phosphor ought not be influenced by warmth dampness or other natural conditionsSlide 11
Influences of the Action of Intensifying Screens Thickness of the phosphor Layer Concentration of the gems Size of the precious stones.Slide 12
Reflective Layer The light from the phosphors is discharged isotropically. Without an intelligent layer, just 50% of the light would cooperate with the film. The intelligent layer diverts the light to the film.Slide 13
Reflective Layer Some screens have uncommon colors that ingest the light photons coming at an extensive points. These photons would expand the picture obscure. Just the photons opposite to the film are radiated. The color increments spatial determination yet decrease speed.Slide 14
Base The base is the layer most remote from the film. It is normally made of polyester. The bas ought to be: Rugged and moister safe Can not be harmed by radiation or staining Chemically dormant, adaptable and free of debasements.Slide 15
Luminescence The x-beam photon is consumed by the objective particle. The external shell electron is raised to an energized state. It comes back to a ground state with discharge of a light photon.Slide 16
Luminescence Any material that gives of light in light of a jolt is a luminescent material. Two sorts of luminescent material. Fluorescent: emits light just amid jolt. Useful for screens Phosphorescence: keeps on radiating light after jolt. Terrible for screens called Lag or Afterglow .Slide 17
Properties of Screens Phosphor arrangement: Rare earth screens are extremely proficient in change of x-beam to light.Slide 18
Properties of Screens Phosphor thickness: The thicker the phosphor layer, the higher the quantity of x-beams changed over to light. Fast screens have thick layer. Subtle element screens have a slight layer. Intelligent layer will build speed and obscureSlide 19
Properties of Screens Dye: Light controlling colors are added to control the light spread to enhance spatial determination. Precious stone size: Larger gem deliver all the more light per connection. Subtle element screens have little precious stones.Slide 20
Properties of Screens Concentration of precious stones: The higher the centralization of gems, the higher the rate.Slide 21
Image Noise Rare earth screens have expanded rate for two reasons: Detective Quantum Efficiency or the capacity to assimilate the photons ( High Z) Conversion Efficiency: Amount of light radiated per x-beam.Slide 22
Image Noise Conversion Efficiency: High change effectiveness brings about builds picture commotion. Commotion shows up as a dotted foundation. It happens with quick screens and utilization of high kVp. The elements that make uncommon earth screens have more prominent speed likewise add to expanded commotion. Expanded transformation effectiveness brings about lower presentation. Less x-beams brings about an incresed quantom mottle.Slide 23
Spatial Resolution Image point of interest is the consequence of spatial determination and difference determination. By and large the conditions that expansion speed decrease spatial determination.Slide 24
Spatial Resolution When screens phosphor responds with x-beams a bigger zone of the film is uncovered than what might be uncovered by radiation alone. This outcomes in decreased spatial determination and more obscure.Slide 25
Spatial Resolution Direct presentation can resolve 50 lp/mm with a little central spot. Rapid screens can resolve 7 lp/mm. Subtle element screens can resolve 15 lp/mm The unaided eye can resolve 10 lp/mm.Slide 26
Spatial Resolution High speed screens have thick layers of gem and/or expansive precious stones. High detail screens have a flimsy layer of little gems.Slide 27
Screen film Combinations Screens in sets and twofold emulsion film is the standard of the business. Under 1% of the picture is delivered by the x-beam photons. Every screen contributes moderately equally in the generation of the picture.Slide 28
Cassettes The tape is an unbending holder for the film and screens. It will contain some type of pressure to push the film in close contact with the screens. The front of the tape is made of a radiolucent material with low ingestion attributes.Slide 29
Cassettes The back of the tape may contain some type of metal that can retain x-beams that are not consumed by the screens. At some point with tapes that don\'t enough assimilate the beams, back disperse will come about because of dissipate radiation from the tape holder or close by divider.Slide 30
Spectrum Matching For the screen to work at most extreme effectiveness, the light retention attributes of the film must be coordinated to the light discharged from the screens. This is called range coordinating.Slide 31
Spectrum Matching Calcium Tungstate transmits a wide blue range. Uncommon earth transmits a green range. The film, screens and safelight must match.Slide 32
Asymmetric Screens in the tape can be of two sorts or speeds. A few people utilize two unique velocities in tape for full spine radiography. At the point when sorts of screens are distinctive, they are alluded to as Asymmetric screens. One side might be high differentiation and the opposite side wide scope. The joined picture is unrivaled.Slide 33
Care of Screens and Cassettes High quality radiography requires that the screens be spotless and free of ancient rarities. Abstain from touching the screens with your hands. Clean the screens with screen more clean. Try not to slide the film in or out when stacking the tape.Slide 34
Care of Screens and Cassettes Keeping the dull room clean will lessen earth or tidy getting into the tape. Try not to stack the tape on top of each different as the weight can harm the tape. Load the film totally in the tape.Slide 35
Care of Screens and Cassettes Clean the screens in any event quarterly. California requires month to month. Utilize just extraordinarily figured screen cleaner with hostile to static properties. Never utilize liquor to clean screens. Ensure they are dry before reloading with film.Slide 36
Examples of Screen Problems The pivot of the tape has fizzled, bringing about a light break.Slide 37
Cassette & Screen Problems Card inside tapeSlide 38
Cassette Artifacts This tape popped halfway open. With tape curios, consider how the tape opens. On the off chance that the tape pops open don\'t utilize the film.Slide 39
Cassette Artifacts Dirty screens will show up as white spots on the film. This film additionally has some electricity produced via friction antiquities.Slide 40
Cassette Artifact Dirty Screens Dirty or harmed screens will bring about white spots on the picture .Slide 41
Dirty or Damaged Screens Dirty or harmed screen will bring about white spots on the picture.Slide 42
Dirty & Damaged Screens The white spots on this film are the consequence of harmed or exhausted screens. Never utilize liquor or cleansers to clean screens.Slide 43
Poor Screen Contact Poor screen contact will bring about an a region of the picture to seem overcast and hazy. Regular explanations behind poor contact include: Worn contact felt Loose, bowed or loosened up pivots twisted or broken hooks Warped screenSlide 44
Poor Screen Contact Common purposes behind poor contact include: Warped tape front or casing. Sprung or broke tape outline. Outside matter in the tape. Screen contact is tried utilizing a wire network test instrument. The wire cross section is set on top of the tape.Slide 45
Poor Screen Contact A radiograph is taken and the film handled. The picture is seen from 2 to 3 meters from the perspective box. Poor contact will show up as an overcast and foggy region on the film.Slide 46
Poor Screen Contact Test the tape when they are bought and afterward twice yearly.Slide 47
23.4 Screen Contact Testing Procedure: Clean screens and let them dry. Use screen cleaner plan for the screen utilized. With a felt tip pen, compose a recognizable proof number on the screen alongside the I.D. what\'s more, on
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