Reconsidering Open Tact Ten Lessons From Its History.

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USIA. Established by Eisenhower in 1953Built from State, Marshall Plan
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Reevaluating Public Diplomacy Ten Lessons From Its History Nick Cull University of Southern California

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USIA Founded by Eisenhower in 1953 Built from State, Marshall Plan & OWI Included Film, Radio, TV & Publications Embassy data focuses & libraries Achievements astounding Cold War won FOR the free market yet NOT won BY the free market media… "Merged" over into State in 1999 Lost its scholastic bolster structure

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Advocacy Cultural Diplomacy State Sponsored News Psychological Warfare in Ancient Greece in the Roman Republic in Medieval Germany as old as War Paint 1: The Practices are OLD Consistent Lessons: I. The force of PD as a multiplier II. The significance of validity III. The peril of the unintended outcome IV. Requirement for investigation & supply-side study

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2. The Term in NEW Coined 1965 by Edmund Gullion, Embraced by USIA Better than Propaganda or Information Argument for development Argument for expert appreciation NOT utilized somewhere else till 1990s… NEW PD goes past govt. to incorporate universal CULTURAL RELATIONS MOVING past the past…

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3. The US is Skeptical… Feared like a standing armed force Justified just in crisis US inclines toward trade/charity LACKS a noteworthy voting public PLENTY of normal opponents Often VENUE for residential battles. Required its Advisory Commission Needs advocates today…

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4. The Cold War was Anomalous US PD conceived of WWII & New Deal radicalism KEY FACTOR risk of Communism NEVER completely acknowledged on Hill Actually a measurement as opposed to an emergency apparatus US PD prisoner to the end of Cold War… Beware of contentions taking into account War on Terror Second Chance to expand on the best practice Opportunity to hit the nail on the head

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5. Its Elements Are Contradictory Advocacy, Culture, & News plans conflict Field & Washington can conflict Contradictory motivation ensure strains Tensions insurance outside overflow into press VOA separated Journo v. Lang. v. FSO v. Administrator. News, Advocacy & Culture can hurt each other Answer = firewalls (like VOA contract) Needs backing for components and also entire

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6. It is extremely \'Pioneer Sensitive\' Newcomer to bureaucratic progressive system Responsibilities \'tread on toes\' Starts from position of shortcoming Tendency to pull in feedback Need an uncommon kind of pioneer Need direct connection to White House NEED C. D. Jackson or Charles Z. Wick HAVE USoS w/o administration limit NEED intercession at battle level

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7. It is NOT separate from Foreign Policy NOT an \'enchantment slug\' to \'move the needle\' CAN\'T spare an imperfect arrangement CAN\'T avoid the gathering of people\'s plan MUST have in-set UP the approach chain NEEDS a commanded seat on NSC OTHERWISE tidying up after the parade NEEDS to be considered along with strategy condition

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8. However, PD is particular Needs vocation way & esteemed staff Needs sustain of extraordinary & different abilities Original staff selected \'mid profession\' Needs bank of experience Needs thoughtfulness regarding parallel practices Needs proficient vocation improvement Needs insightful examination and promotion Needs reestablished part of Academic backing

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9. Not all messages are expected Excellent work can originate from little things Excellent work can be fixed by awful strategy Beware of the unintended result Foreign Students need particular consideration Showing AND Telling (instance of Watergate) Need for managed examination Need to realize totally new possibilities Watch for missed open doors

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10. There must be commonality Goal = better relationship Need BOTH sides speaking Need BOTH sides deferential Need BOTH open to being changed West needs to LEARN to listen Need PD from THEM to US Need build up THEIR PD Obvious part for USC\'s Center

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The Present Crisis Danger of transient ism Inadequate structure @ State Under speculation & \'exchange offs\' Spill-over of security concerns Misapplication of lessons of the past Iraq 2005 is not Germany or Japan, 1946 Middle East 2005 is not Eastern Europe, 1988 Can simply go after another era… Potential of extended NED

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New contenders New organizations together New open doors New players New strategies better approaches for living China Europe Iran NGOs Internet and so forth "Ampersands" The Future "In this incredible future, you can\'t overlook your past… " Value in examining the historical backdrop of PD

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