Restorative Imaging and Example Acknowledgment.


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A computerized picture is a photo put away in double (bits). The photo dwells in a computerized stockpiling framework as a ... EXIF - Exchangeable picture record group for computerized still cameras ...
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Therapeutic Imaging and Pattern Recognition Lecture 3 Image Formats Oleh Tretiak MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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This Lecture Digital Images Applications of Digital Images Image Formats General Medical MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Introduction A computerized picture is a photo put away in parallel (bits). The photo dwells in a computerized stockpiling framework as a document. A record is a grouping of bytes One byte comprises of 8 bits A photo is a rectangular cluster of pixels MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Pixels, Gray Values and Quantization Conceptually, a monochrome (highly contrasting) picture is a capacity f ( x, y ), examined over a two-dimensional matrix. Every example quality is known as a pixel (picture component). Thoughtfully, the capacity is genuine esteemed and has a persistent territory. This is known as the dark estimation of the pixel. On a PC, it is spoken to with a limited number of bits. This is called quantization. Most much of the time, the computerized amount is translated as a nonnegative number spoke to by a byte (8 bits). 0 ≤ v < 2 8 (256) MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Example Pixel arrangement in record Raw picture position, 256x256, 1 byte for each pixel [ip:KPI/Notes/Lecture 3] ojt% ls - l lena.raw - rw-r- - r- - 1 ojt staff 65536 27 Sep 20:29 lena.raw [ip:KPI/Notes/Lecture 3] ojt% hexdump - x lena.raw | more 0000000 6464 6567 6466 6966 6a68 696b 6a6a 6c6b 0000010 6b6a 6764 6162 5d5a 5d5e 5d63 6b6e 7c8b MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Calculations In the supposed crude configuration, the document contains just the dark estimations of the pixels. Bits/picture = Rows x Columns x bits/pixel Bytes/picture = Rows x Columns x bytes/pixel Example: For the past slide, 256 lines, 256 segments, 1 byte for each pixel. Bytes = 256x256x1 = 65536 MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Examples 256x256, 4 bit, 32 kB 256x256, 1 bit, 8 kB 256x256, 4 bit, 32 kB 128x128, 4 bit, 16 kB 256x256, 2 bit, 32 kB 256x256, 8 bit, 65 kB MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Pixels, Quantization, and Quality A given picture can be spoken to with various quantities of pixels and different quantities of bits per pixel. Less pixels produces lower quality Fewer bits per pixel produces lower quality There is a tradeoff amongst quality and picture stockpiling necessities. MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Uses of Digital Pictures Photography Medical Imaging X-beam CT Ultrasound Movies DVD Television MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Why Standard Formats? Interoperability Image made by Nikon, saw on PC made by Apple. Favorable circumstances of gauges Competition among merchants (lower costs) Creation of business sectors Multiple sellers - item cycle security MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Useful Data About Photograph Size (lines and segments) Size of print (cm) Size of subject (cm) Color/BW What shading? Record arrangement ought to contain these information MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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TIFF Tagged Image File Format Proprietary, now claimed by Adobe Many diverse alternatives (simple to compose, hard to peruse) File contains data about Rows and segments what number segments (hues, overlays) Bits per channel Example: lena.raw - 65,536 Bytes, lena.tif - 66,304 B Extra stockpiling (768 Bytes) used to store data about picture. MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Image Coding (Compression) Why pack? Store more pictures in same memory Spend less time sending picture over web Lossless pressure: Decompress document and get the same picture, bit - for - bit Typically, two-fold pressure just for dim worth pictures. Lossy pressure: Decompress and get something comparable. Any measure of pressure is conceivable. Tradeoff between picture quality and pressure. MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Lossless Compression Many ways have been produced by and by, Lempel-Ziv (compress, gzip, and so forth) is the one and only utilized. Get 2-fold compressions over crude arrangement Can be incorporated into TIFF MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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JPEG = joint photographic specialists bunch, standard discharged in 1992. By and by (just about) just lossy picture pressure plan utilized as a part of practice. Standard has numerous choices, one and only is utilized as a part of practice. MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Example of JPEG pressure Very great: pressure = 2.33 Photoshop Image Very low quality: pressure = 115 Produced by MATLAB with Quality = 0 MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Block Diagram — JPEG DCT Image is partitioned into 8x8 obstructs The discrete cosine change (DCT) is processed of every square. The change qualities are encoded. MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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JPEG DCT Decoder The qualities for every square are decoded. Decoded qualities are conversely changed (opposite DCT), delivering 8x8 pixel squares. The squares are gathered into a photo. MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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JPEG Files by and by (2004) DCF - Design rules for the Camera File framework (DCF) Can incorporate movies, sound. EXIF - Exchangeable picture record design for computerized still cameras Data about time picture taken, central length, and so forth. Document can be uncompressed (TIFF) Compressed information in JPEG design MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Medical Image Environment Imaging gadgets, strategy rooms X-beam, CT, MRI, Ultrasound, Nuclear Patient data framework Patient history, pictures, booking/administration/charging Reliable enormous stockpiling gadgets. Perusing stations Radiologists view pictures and history, create reports. All associated through system and capacity MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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DICOM Standard Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine Ongoing standard action Sponsored by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and National Electronics Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 22 workgroups MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Features of DICOM Unit of information: Imaging Procedure incorporates accumulation of pictures with determined objective, and incorporates determination of sickness, organ, imaging gadget, contrast specialist, and so forth. The DICOM standard is article arranged. MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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What are "Restorative Images" The fundamental unit is an imaging method Can comprise of a few pictures Data can be "three dimensional" Multiple cuts, e. g. CT Auxiliary non-picture information Patient history Contrast operator Date, time, ... MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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DICOM and Other Standards Image guidelines in DICOM are from different sources TIFF, JPEG Distinguishing highlights: 12, 16 bits for each pixel Schemes for managing three measurements (not secured by different benchmarks) MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Ultrasound of Breast Lesion MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Issues File size Image quality Interoperability MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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Technology Trends: Telemedicine, PACS Trend toward complex frameworks PACS - picture documenting and interchanges Critical assets Expensive imaging gadgets, strategies Medical ability Technological arrangements Bring patient to scanner Bring picture to master Digital imaging, databases, systems, gauges are a key part of the answer MIPR Lecture 3 Copyright Oleh Tretiak, 2004

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