RTV 3007.


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Normal per-scene charge paid by business systems for TV arrangement (2004) ... Patterns: Emergence of Reality Television. Allure for systems ...
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RTV 3007 Programming

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Filling the Program Schedule

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Purposes of Programs Attract biggest group of onlookers with best demographics Balanced calendar for deals division Satisfy open interest prerequisites Develop ideal picture

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Where Stations get their Programs Local Production

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Where Stations get their Programs Network(s) Full Service Regional Ad hoc/Occasional

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Network

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Network

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Where Stations get their Programs Syndicated Programming

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Syndication

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Networks and Programming

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Program Sources: Where Networks Get Their Programs Production Community (Hollywood) Network Production Co-preparations

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Broadcast Network Program Process Development of Program Proposals Treatment (one moment rundown of appear) Promising thoughts into scripts Often Includes Step Deal & first refusal rights Production of a few scripts into pilots Testing and assessment prompts contract for set number of scenes

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Network Program Process Networks declare next season\' s lineup of new shows in Spring ( May ) Networks hold some new shows for Fall lineup (Sept.) and some for the second season (Jan-Feb) to supplant demonstrates that don\'t make it 9 out of 10 new projects that make the air come up short on account of poor appraisals

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Network Program Process Some " hot " makers are given advancement bargains for various projects over a timeframe

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The Changing Production Environment Changes in Program Ownership Rules Vertical Integration

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Program Costs

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Program Costs Average per-scene charge paid by business systems for TV arrangement (2000) 30-minute sitcom $925,000 1-hour drama $1,450,000 1 hour Newsmagazine $750,000 1 hour Reality $650,000 Made-for-TV-Movie (90-120 minutes) $2,850,000

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Program Costs Average per-scene expense paid by business systems for TV arrangement (2004) 30-minute sitcom $1,125,000 1-hour drama $1,675,000 1 hour Newsmagazine $840,000 1 hour Reality $795,000 Made-for-TV-Movie (90-120 minutes) $3,150,000

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Program Costs continue rising: Average per-scene charge paid by business systems for TV arrangement (2006) 30 minute Situation Comedy $1,600,000 hour long Drama $2,800,000 Reality $1,500,000

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Program Costs Per-scene expense paid by business systems for particular TV arrangement (2006) ER $13,000,000

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Program Costs Average 2002-03 for each scene expense that NBC paid WB (maker) for 30 minute circumstance comic drama, "Companions"… $10,000,000

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Program Costs Average per-scene expense to deliver "Companions" in 2002-03 … $10, 5 00,000 Deficit… .$500,000 per scene

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Final period of Friends (2002-03) Each Friends cast part got $1 million for every scene ($22 million for the season) Friends cast individuals additionally get a cut in syndication benefits Deficit well over $500,000 per scene for last Friends season Advertising rate for 30-second system spot amid Friends $450,000

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Program Costs In many cases the expense of creating a system is higher than what the system will pay

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Program Costs This is called "The Deficit"

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Program Costs Examples of other vast shortfalls (2000)…   Frasier $400,000 Law and Order $420,000

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Program Costs But… . ER per scene permit charge $13,000,000—"in benefit" NYPD Blue, Spin City, X-records had creation costs paid for while still on system run

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Why take a deficiency to deliver a communicate system program? May make millions with a "hit" in off-system Syndication, particularly a long-running arrangement Example: Superstation TBS pays roughly $1 million for each scene (in addition to one moment of advertisement space) for a four-year keep running of Seinfeld

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Programming Strategies

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Programming Strategies Goal: Maximizing Audience Flow: The gathering of people pulled in to a project will watch different projects prior and then afterward it

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Friends NBC Thur West Wing NBC Wed ER NBC Thur Law & Order NBC Wed Raymond CBS Mon CSI CBS Thurs Survivor CBS Thurs Will/Grace NBC Thur L/O: SVU NBC Wed Becker CBS Mon Just Shoot Me NBC Thur 60 Mins CBS Sun JAG CBS Tue MNF ABC Mon Judging Amy CBS Tue Practice ABC Sun Frasier NBC Tues The Guardian CBS Tue NFL Showcase ABC Mon L/O Criminal Intent NBC Sun Flow: Oct 2001 Prime Time Ratings

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Program Strategies Strip : Presented in the meantime every day of the week Builds viewer steadfastness Builds viewer propensity

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Program Strategies Block : Programs comparative in claim tail each other

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Program Strategies Strong Lead-in : Major project at begin of day-part

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Program Strategies Checkerboarding : Different projects every day in a period opening

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Program Strategies Hammock : Putting a frail or doubtful project between two fruitful ones

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Program Strategies Front-stacking : Major scene, highlight film, right on time in season Cross-over : Character from one project shows up on other project Spin-off : Taking well known characters from one appear and give them their own particular appear

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Program Strategies Seamless Programming : One project closes and the following starts without intrusion Repurposing : R e-keep running of communicate substance on a link organize not long after it affectation initially on system associate stations.

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Program Strategies Disrupting Audience Flow

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Disrupting Audience Flow Counterprogramming : Seeking groups of onlookers not being served by different projects in an era By Genre By Demographic Niche By Program Launch Date

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Disrupting Audience Flow Stunting : Moving projects around the calendar, additional long projects, and so forth

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Syndicated Programming

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Syndicated Programming Programs sold straightforwardly to stations as opposed to dispersed by system Film Packages Off-system First-run

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Off-Network Syndication Episodes of projects in the past "authorized" to one of the significant systems - now rented (in reruns) to individual stations or link systems

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Network

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Network

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Syndication

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Off-Network Syndication Vital significance to rights-holder: makes $$$ again & again & again.... "Companions" will acquire over $1 billion in syndication

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Off-Network Syndication Vital significance to rights-holder: makes $$$ again & again & again.... A & E paid $155,000 per scene for Law & Order TNT will pay $250,000 per scene for those… and $800,000 for scenes not appeared on A & E

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Off-Network Syndication Must have adequate scenes (75-100) for strip Syndication can start before system run is finished

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Fin/Syn Rules 1970-1995 No Syndication Allowed Limited Financial Stake in projects

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Fin/Syn Rules 1970-1995 Why Fin/Syn? Expand Competition Prevent Network Monopoly Elimination of Fin/Syn: Cable and Fox Competition

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Network Run

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Syndicated Run

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Consequences of Eliminating Fin/Syn? Fox ends offer of Buffy to WB Network and offers it to UPN (reason Fox TV was securing 10 UPN partnered stations)

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Consequences of Eliminating Fin/Syn? Systems are taking to a greater degree a money related premium and organization in co-creations (e.g. Will & Grace )

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Programming Syndicated Shows Does Network Success=Syndication Success? System Schedule? Market Characteristics Timeliness of Theme

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Programming Syndicated Shows Program Freshness Your Schedule Holes Competitors Schedule

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First-Run Syndication Shows delivered for syndication that air on nearby stations Strips/Weeklies/Specials Usually bring down generation values than nets Like nets- - pilots created and afterward to showcase

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Paying for Syndicated Programs Cash Barter: Syndicator keeps a few or the majority of the business time (NOT the same as Trade Out) Cash/Barter

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Barter Syndication Pro-deal contention: Lowers expense of projects to station Anti-deal contentions: Station loses control of business stock Dilutes spot market

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Why Programs are Canceled Low Ratings Wrong Demographics Declining Ratings

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Why Programs are Canceled Loss of Ratings from lead-in or to taking after system Increased Costs Worn-out throws or imaginative individuals

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Examples of Off-Network & First Run Programming Visit the accompanying sites Warner Brothers Universal Paramount (see tape) King World Not CBS

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Judge Judy Judge Joe Brown Life Moments Hot Ticket Real TV Maximum Exposure Montel Renez-View Relic Hunter Entertainment Tonight** Paramount Sales Tape 2002: First-run syndicated shows

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Frasier Becker Moesha Sabrina Teenage Witch Sister Parkers Spin City Charmed Star Trek Voyager 7 th Heaven Paramount Sales Tape 2002: Off-system syndicated demonstrates All Reruns of past communicate system appears

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Trends: Primetime Network Series & Video on Demand Primetime communicate system indicates accessible for downloads (iPod) and Video on Demand to Cable, DBS & Cellphones Some shows have had standard appraisals helped by video iPod deals (e.g. The Office) particularly among more youthful viewers 15 percent of 18-24 year olds have downloaded TV program Warner Bros. offering old reruns on

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