RTV 3007 ProgrammingSlide 2
Filling the Program ScheduleSlide 3
Purposes of Programs Attract biggest group of onlookers with best demographics Balanced calendar for deals division Satisfy open interest prerequisites Develop ideal pictureSlide 4
Where Stations get their Programs Local ProductionSlide 5
Where Stations get their Programs Network(s) Full Service Regional Ad hoc/OccasionalSlide 6
Where Stations get their Programs Syndicated ProgrammingSlide 11
Networks and ProgrammingSlide 14
Program Sources: Where Networks Get Their Programs Production Community (Hollywood) Network Production Co-preparationsSlide 15
Broadcast Network Program Process Development of Program Proposals Treatment (one moment rundown of appear) Promising thoughts into scripts Often Includes Step Deal & first refusal rights Production of a few scripts into pilots Testing and assessment prompts contract for set number of scenesSlide 16
Network Program Process Networks declare next season\' s lineup of new shows in Spring ( May ) Networks hold some new shows for Fall lineup (Sept.) and some for the second season (Jan-Feb) to supplant demonstrates that don\'t make it 9 out of 10 new projects that make the air come up short on account of poor appraisalsSlide 17
Network Program Process Some " hot " makers are given advancement bargains for various projects over a timeframeSlide 18
The Changing Production Environment Changes in Program Ownership Rules Vertical IntegrationSlide 20
Program CostsSlide 21
Program Costs Average per-scene charge paid by business systems for TV arrangement (2000) 30-minute sitcom $925,000 1-hour drama $1,450,000 1 hour Newsmagazine $750,000 1 hour Reality $650,000 Made-for-TV-Movie (90-120 minutes) $2,850,000Slide 22
Program Costs Average per-scene expense paid by business systems for TV arrangement (2004) 30-minute sitcom $1,125,000 1-hour drama $1,675,000 1 hour Newsmagazine $840,000 1 hour Reality $795,000 Made-for-TV-Movie (90-120 minutes) $3,150,000Slide 23
Program Costs continue rising: Average per-scene charge paid by business systems for TV arrangement (2006) 30 minute Situation Comedy $1,600,000 hour long Drama $2,800,000 Reality $1,500,000Slide 24
Program Costs Per-scene expense paid by business systems for particular TV arrangement (2006) ER $13,000,000Slide 25
Program Costs Average 2002-03 for each scene expense that NBC paid WB (maker) for 30 minute circumstance comic drama, "Companions"… $10,000,000Slide 26
Program Costs Average per-scene expense to deliver "Companions" in 2002-03 … $10, 5 00,000 Deficit… .$500,000 per sceneSlide 27
Final period of Friends (2002-03) Each Friends cast part got $1 million for every scene ($22 million for the season) Friends cast individuals additionally get a cut in syndication benefits Deficit well over $500,000 per scene for last Friends season Advertising rate for 30-second system spot amid Friends $450,000Slide 28
Program Costs In many cases the expense of creating a system is higher than what the system will paySlide 29
Program Costs This is called "The Deficit"Slide 30
Program Costs Examples of other vast shortfalls (2000)… Frasier $400,000 Law and Order $420,000Slide 31
Program Costs But… . ER per scene permit charge $13,000,000—"in benefit" NYPD Blue, Spin City, X-records had creation costs paid for while still on system runSlide 32
Why take a deficiency to deliver a communicate system program? May make millions with a "hit" in off-system Syndication, particularly a long-running arrangement Example: Superstation TBS pays roughly $1 million for each scene (in addition to one moment of advertisement space) for a four-year keep running of SeinfeldSlide 33
Programming StrategiesSlide 34
Programming Strategies Goal: Maximizing Audience Flow: The gathering of people pulled in to a project will watch different projects prior and then afterward itSlide 35
Friends NBC Thur West Wing NBC Wed ER NBC Thur Law & Order NBC Wed Raymond CBS Mon CSI CBS Thurs Survivor CBS Thurs Will/Grace NBC Thur L/O: SVU NBC Wed Becker CBS Mon Just Shoot Me NBC Thur 60 Mins CBS Sun JAG CBS Tue MNF ABC Mon Judging Amy CBS Tue Practice ABC Sun Frasier NBC Tues The Guardian CBS Tue NFL Showcase ABC Mon L/O Criminal Intent NBC Sun Flow: Oct 2001 Prime Time RatingsSlide 36
Program Strategies Strip : Presented in the meantime every day of the week Builds viewer steadfastness Builds viewer propensitySlide 37
Program Strategies Block : Programs comparative in claim tail each otherSlide 40
Program Strategies Strong Lead-in : Major project at begin of day-partSlide 43
Program Strategies Checkerboarding : Different projects every day in a period openingSlide 46
Program Strategies Hammock : Putting a frail or doubtful project between two fruitful onesSlide 49
Program Strategies Front-stacking : Major scene, highlight film, right on time in season Cross-over : Character from one project shows up on other project Spin-off : Taking well known characters from one appear and give them their own particular appearSlide 50
Program Strategies Seamless Programming : One project closes and the following starts without intrusion Repurposing : R e-keep running of communicate substance on a link organize not long after it affectation initially on system associate stations.Slide 51
Program Strategies Disrupting Audience FlowSlide 52
Disrupting Audience Flow Counterprogramming : Seeking groups of onlookers not being served by different projects in an era By Genre By Demographic Niche By Program Launch DateSlide 55
Disrupting Audience Flow Stunting : Moving projects around the calendar, additional long projects, and so forthSlide 56
Syndicated ProgrammingSlide 57
Syndicated Programming Programs sold straightforwardly to stations as opposed to dispersed by system Film Packages Off-system First-runSlide 63
Off-Network Syndication Episodes of projects in the past "authorized" to one of the significant systems - now rented (in reruns) to individual stations or link systemsSlide 64
Off-Network Syndication Vital significance to rights-holder: makes $$$ again & again & again.... "Companions" will acquire over $1 billion in syndicationSlide 68
Off-Network Syndication Vital significance to rights-holder: makes $$$ again & again & again.... A & E paid $155,000 per scene for Law & Order TNT will pay $250,000 per scene for those… and $800,000 for scenes not appeared on A & ESlide 69
Off-Network Syndication Must have adequate scenes (75-100) for strip Syndication can start before system run is finishedSlide 70
Fin/Syn Rules 1970-1995 No Syndication Allowed Limited Financial Stake in projectsSlide 71
Fin/Syn Rules 1970-1995 Why Fin/Syn? Expand Competition Prevent Network Monopoly Elimination of Fin/Syn: Cable and Fox CompetitionSlide 72
Network RunSlide 73
Syndicated RunSlide 74
Consequences of Eliminating Fin/Syn? Fox ends offer of Buffy to WB Network and offers it to UPN (reason Fox TV was securing 10 UPN partnered stations)Slide 75
Consequences of Eliminating Fin/Syn? Systems are taking to a greater degree a money related premium and organization in co-creations (e.g. Will & Grace )Slide 76
Programming Syndicated Shows Does Network Success=Syndication Success? System Schedule? Market Characteristics Timeliness of ThemeSlide 77
Programming Syndicated Shows Program Freshness Your Schedule Holes Competitors ScheduleSlide 78
First-Run Syndication Shows delivered for syndication that air on nearby stations Strips/Weeklies/Specials Usually bring down generation values than nets Like nets- - pilots created and afterward to showcaseSlide 79
Paying for Syndicated Programs Cash Barter: Syndicator keeps a few or the majority of the business time (NOT the same as Trade Out) Cash/BarterSlide 80
Barter Syndication Pro-deal contention: Lowers expense of projects to station Anti-deal contentions: Station loses control of business stock Dilutes spot marketSlide 81
Why Programs are Canceled Low Ratings Wrong Demographics Declining RatingsSlide 82
Why Programs are Canceled Loss of Ratings from lead-in or to taking after system Increased Costs Worn-out throws or imaginative individualsSlide 83
Examples of Off-Network & First Run Programming Visit the accompanying sites Warner Brothers Universal Paramount (see tape) King World Not CBSSlide 84
Judge Judy Judge Joe Brown Life Moments Hot Ticket Real TV Maximum Exposure Montel Renez-View Relic Hunter Entertainment Tonight** Paramount Sales Tape 2002: First-run syndicated showsSlide 85
Frasier Becker Moesha Sabrina Teenage Witch Sister Parkers Spin City Charmed Star Trek Voyager 7 th Heaven Paramount Sales Tape 2002: Off-system syndicated demonstrates All Reruns of past communicate system appearsSlide 86
Trends: Primetime Network Series & Video on Demand Primetime communicate system indicates accessible for downloads (iPod) and Video on Demand to Cable, DBS & Cellphones Some shows have had standard appraisals helped by video iPod deals (e.g. The Office) particularly among more youthful viewers 15 percent of 18-24 year olds have downloaded TV program Warner Bros. offering old reruns on
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