S1 L1 Introduction to Pharmacognosy .

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S1 L1 Introduction to Pharmacognosy. Anna Drew with slide contribution from Bob Hoffman & grateful acknowledgement for inspirational teaching received at the School of Pharmacy, University of London. ‘Pharmacognosy’ pharmakon ‘a drug’ (Greek) gignosco ‘ to acquire knowledge of’ (Greek)
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S1 L1 Introduction to Pharmacognosy Anna Drew with slide commitment from Bob Hoffman & thankful affirmation for rousing instructing got at the School of Pharmacy, University of London

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"Pharmacognosy" pharmakon \'a medication\' (Greek) gignosco " to get information of\' (Greek) OR cognosco \'to think about\' (Latin) Johann Adam Schmidt (1759-1809) Lehrbuch der Materia Medica Published Vienna 1811 Beethoven\'s doctor

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Naturally happening substances having a restorative activity: Surgical dressings arranged from normal filaments Flavorings and suspending operators Disintegrants Filtering and bolster media Other related fields: Poisonous and psychedelic plants Raw materials for creation of oral contraceptives Allergens Herbicides and bug sprays

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Pharmacognosy is identified with: Botany Ethnobotany Marine science Microbiology Herbal solution Chemistry (phytochemistry) Pharmacology Pharmaceutics

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Skills & systems profitable somewhere else: Analysis of different commodoties Foods, flavors, gums, fragrances, textures, beautifying agents Used by Public experts, criminological sciences, quality-control researchers Role in unadulterated sciences Botany, plant scientific categorization, phytochemistry Botanists and physicists taking a gander at: Chemical plant scientific categorization, hereditary/enzymatic reviews including 2 y metabolites Artificial and tissue culture Effects of chemicals on plant metabolites Induction of anomalous amalgamations Bioassay-guided disengagement procedures

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Vegetable medications can be masterminded contemplate: Alphabetical Taxonomic** plant characterization Morphological Organized medications: leaves, blossoms, natural product, seeds and so on Unorganized medications: separates, gums, tars, oils and so on Pharmacological/therapeutic* Increasingly utilized with screening Constituents of one medication may fall into a few gatherings Chemical/biogenetic Constituents or biosynthetic pathways

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Example Linnaeus (1707-1778), Swedish scholar Division Angiospermae Class Dicotyledoneae Subclass Sympetalae Order Tubiflorae Suborder Verbenineae Family Labiatae (Lamiaceae) Subfamily Stachydoideae Tribe Satureieae Genus Mentha Species Mentha piperita Linnaeus (peppermint) Varieties Mentha piperita var. officinalis Sole (White Peppermint); Mentha piperita var. vulgaris Sole (Black Peppermint)

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Contribution of plants to solution and drug store 18 th century drugs plant based 19 th century a scope of medications was separated: 1805 morphine 1817 emetine 1819 strychnine 1820 quinine Famous plants/plant drugs?

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Quinine Cinchona bark, South American tree Used by Incas; dried bark ground and blended with wine First utilized as a part of Rome in 1631 Extracted 1820 Large scale utilize 1850 Chemical combination 1944 Actual tree remains the most financial source

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Belladonna - > atropine Anticholinergic disorder: Hot as damnation Blind as a bat Red as a beet Dry as a bone Mad as a hatter

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Physostigma venosum Calabar bean

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Efik People

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Efik Law Trial by trial "A presumed individual is given 8 beans ground and added to water as a drink. In the event that he is blameworthy, his mouth shakes and bodily fluid originates from his nose. His blamelessness is demonstrated on the off chance that he lifts his correct hand and after that spews" (Simmons 1952) Deadly esere Administration of the Calabar bean First saw by WF Daniell in 1840 Later depicted by Freeman 1846 in a Communication to the Ethnological Society of Edinburgh

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Physostigmine or Eserine First separated in 1864 by Jobst & Hesse

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"Taxol" Pacific Yew tree, Taxus brevifolia, bark 1964 action found at NCI 1966 paclitaxel secluded Mitotic inhibitor meddles with ordinary microtubule development amid cell div Used for disease chemotherapy lung, ovarian, bosom, head & neck, Kaposi\'s sarcoma

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1969 1200kg bark - > 28kg unrefined concentrate - > 10g immaculate 1975 dynamic in another in vitro test 1977 7000 pounds bark asked for to make 600g 1978 Mildly dynamic in leukaemic mice 1979 Horowitz; obscure component included balancing out of microtubules 1980 20,000 pounds of bark required 1982 Animal reviews finished

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1984 Phase I trials 12,000 pounds for Phase II to proceed 1986 Phase II trials started Recognized 60,000 pounds miniumum required Environmental concerns voiced 1988 An impact in melanoma RR of 30% unmanageable ovarian cases Annual obliteration of 360,000 trees to treat all US cases 1989 NCI gave over to BMS Agreed to discover elective generation pathway 1992 BMS given FDA endorsement & 5yrs showcasing rights Trademark "Taxol" Generic paclitaxel 2000 deals crested US$1.6 billion Now accessible as nonexclusive

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Alternative creation 1967-1993 all sourced from Pacific Yew Late 1970s manufactured creation from petrochemical-determined beginning materials 1981 Potier disconnected 10-deacetylbaccitin from Taxus baccata needles 1988 distributed semi-engineered highway 1992 Holton protected enhanced process enhancing respect 80% 1995 utilization of Pacific Yew ceased Now plant cell aging (PCF) innovation utilized Also found as a part of organisms Race for engineered generation - > docetaxel

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Why do we require plants? Wellspring of medication particles Most medications can be orchestrated Still more efficient to utilize the plant Papaver opium - > morphine, codeine (solid restorative torment) Ergot organism –> ergotamine (cerebral pain), ergometrine (coordinate activity on uterine muscle)

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Digitalis foxglove - > digoxin (follows up on cardiovascular muscle)

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2. Wellspring of complex particles that can be changed to restorative mixes Examples: Droscera yam: atom - > steroids Soya: saponins - > steroids

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3. Wellspring of dangerous particles To concentrate the way the body reacts to their pharmacological utilize Investigating pharmacological systems picrotoxin – nerve conduction

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4. Wellspring of mixes to use as formats for planning new medications Morphine : No better painkiller. When structure worked out needed to enhance it. What is required? Diacetylmorphine (heroin): OH amass - > O-O-diacetyl. Still addictive? Codeine : Methylate hydroxyl phenolic; O-Me. 1/5 pain relieving limit of morphine, helpful to stifle hack reflex Dihydromorphinone: Reduced =, oxidized 2y alc. Potential pain relieving.

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Dihydrocodeine : Me-ether of past. More effective than codeine, not as much as morphine. Dextromethorphan : Good against hack reflex Is lower ring fundamental? Is center ring required? Pethidine Pentazocin Methadone Phenazocine

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5. Wellspring of novel structures these might never be considered Catharanthus periwinkle - > vincristine (alkaloid dimer)

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6. Wellspring of plant medications As a powder or concentrate The immaculate compound is regularly not detached on the grounds that: Active fixing is obscure Active fixing is shaky Isolation process is too expensive

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250,- 500,000 types of higher plants on earth <10% examined and just for one action Huge potential in plant kingdom Future: exceptional screening Anticancer - NCI Antimicrobial Antiviral Antimalarial Insecticidal Hypoglycaemic Cardiotonic Antiprotozoal Antifertility - WHO

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Screening Pharmacological – in vitro testing Chemical – certain constituents Eg alkaloids Failed screening work Incorrect distinguishing proof of plant material Plants exist in synthetic races – distinctive constituents Low yield of dynamic compound Solubility – need to discover redress dissolvable

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Future 80% total populace depend on common cures Westernization of social orders (\'customary\' information) Extermination of species protection, hold quality pools Natural assets depleted development, counterfeit propogation

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Conclusion Natural items vital to pharmaceutical Exist in scope of structures that one wouldn\'t consider orchestrating Can go about as layouts for new medication advancement Untapped store of new mixes

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