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Characterizing A SEABIRD . A winged animal
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DEFINING A SEABIRD A flying creature – Duh?! Plumes Hollow bones Wings Endothermic (warm blooded) Specialized lungs – wind streams in one heading helped via air sacs Live, nourish and breed close to the ocean – rely on upon ocean for sustenance Secrete salt from organs in nose or close eyes Breed in provinces (95% of seabirds) – 10s to 1000s

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Only 4% of the world\'s 9000 flying creature species are seabirds = 372 types Of the 29 requests of fowls 7 contain seabirds

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Spenisciformes (penguins) Gaviiformes (jumpers, nut cases & grebes) Procellariiformes (gooney birds, petrels & shearwaters) Pelecaniformes (pelicans, gannets, boobies, cormorants, frigatebirds & tropicbirds) Anseriformes (ducks & geese) Charadriiformes (gulls, terns and auks)

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Spenisciformes - penguins 17 species – all discovered south of the equator Most are found around Antarctica (or New Zealand/Australia/Southern America) But the Galapagos penguin lives close to the equator Adaptations to the marine environment include: Solid (not empty) bones – so they can plunge Very hydrodynamic shape – swim up to 15 mph Wing bones are intertwined – a strong flipper (rather than a wing) Wings "fly" submerged – like sealions Thick fat layer, in addition to quills to protect Their quills resemble pins & not extended – denser pressed Plus behavioral adjustments (e.g. clustering)

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Gaviiformes - jumpers and nut cases Loons are called "jumpers" in the UK The northern side of the equator\'s response to penguins Adaptations to the marine environment include: Like penguins have strong (not empty) bones Simply by breathing out and discharging their air sacs they can turn out to be sufficiently overwhelming to sink Feet are close to the backs of their bodies – more noteworthy push when plunging Have lobed feet (not webbed) – expanded surface range Can jump to profundities of 100s of feet for a few minutes BUT – dissimilar to penguins they can fly (albeit substantial)

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Gaviiformes - grebes Grebe

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Procellariiformes - gooney bird Unlike penguins & nut cases gooney birds don\'t invest much energy in the water Instead they fly over the sea hunting down prey Usually found in the southern side of the equator The gooney birds float in the consistent solid winds around Antarctica Adaptations to the marine environment include: Long wingspan (3 - 4 m) however limit wings – ideal for long separation skimming They have a tube on top of their noses – permits them to identify changes wind ebbs and flows A since quite a while ago snared nose for getting fish on the wing

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Procellariiformes - petrels Small sparrow-sized flying creatures They skim over the surface of the ocean searching for sustenance Migrate to the equator amid the winter Breed in tunnels to dodge predators Adaptations to the marine environment include: They have a tube on top of their snouts – like gooney birds Also have a snared nose like gooney birds Secrete abundance salt through their nose tubes Don\'t coast yet fold quickly, rapidly and low over the highest points of waves Unlike gooney birds, will jump into the water – at times flying through the peak of a wave

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Procellariiformes - shearwaters Also skim over the surface of the ocean searching for nourishment Pelagic – generally chasing on the vast sea Have a bill and nose tube like the gooney bird & petrel

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Pelecaniformes One of the biggest gatherings of seabirds 67 species Adaptations to the marine environment include: All have completely webbed feet = TOTIPALMATE Most have a versatile pocket of skin hanging beneath their nose

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Pelecaniformes - pelicans Large flying creatures (with a wingspan of up to 3m) Adaptations to the marine environment include: Very thin hydrodynamic shape to jump into the water They open their mouths utilize their throat pockets to "net" their prey

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Pelecaniformes - boobies Primarily tropical Adaptations to the marine environment include: Dive from statures of about 100\' onto prey Torpedo molded - for piercing the water\'s surface

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Pelecaniformes - gannets Found in cool northern locales – home on rough bluffs Adaptations to the marine environment include: Like boobies, plunge onto prey from tallness Can hit the water at 60mph Skull extraordinarily adjusted to retain the power of effect, and to shield their brains from harm

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Pelecaniformes - cormorants Adaptations to the marine environment include: Even more streamlined for jumping from tallness Can plunge to profundities of 10 m or all the more Some species are flightless with huge webbed, back arranged feet BUT their wings are not waterproof, so need to continue arriving to permit their wings to dry

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Pelecaniformes - frigatebirds Much more coordinated noticeable all around than alternate pelecaniformes Opportunistic feeders – mollusks, fish, turtles and even jellyfish Will likewise oftentimes take nourishment from different seabirds

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Pelecaniformes - tropicbirds Feathers are more waterproof than frigatebirds thus can fly more over untamed sea

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Anseriformes –ducks & geese 4 types of duck (EIDER DUCKS) are marine & 4 types of STEAMER ducks (3 are flightless) They have delicate feathery (well protecting) plumes The kelp goose is additionally marine and bolsters on green growth

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Charadriiformes Account for about portion of the seabird species 131 species Including 50 types of gulls 44 types of terns 22 types of auk 8 types of skua (jaeger)

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Charadriiformes - gulls Adaptations to the marine environment include: Hooked noses, webbed feet and long intense wings Can\'t plunge like a nut case, or fly like a gooney bird or swim and a cormorant – yet are a "handyman" Very artful feeders and ready to discover a specialty in any untamed sea or seaside environment

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Charadriiformes - terns Sometimes called "ocean swallows" more effortless relative of gulls Hunt for sustenance as opposed to rummage like gulls Only have little webbed feet, so not great swimmers, swoop and find prey on the wing

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Charadriiformes - skuas Called Jaegers in the US Look like a hybrid of a falcon and a gull Fierce predators with a terrible disposition Most possess the southern half of the globe (in spite of the fact that the considerable skua is found in the north)

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Charadriiformes - auks Clumsy noticeable all around yet amazingly great jumpers Usually occupy colder, northern side of the equator zones Adaptations to a marine domain: Narrow, parrot like noses, that can gather up a few little fish at once Use their wings to fly submerged like penguins BUT more light than penguins and need to work harder to stay submerged

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OTHER BIRDS FOUND IN THE MARINE ENVIROMENT Although not formally SEABIRDS, other fowl species utilize the marine environment: Wading flying creatures in waterfront mudflats and estuaries Herons, Egrets & Spoonbills – freshwater, additionally found in salt walks and estuaries Flamingos – live in salt swamps and estuaries (and salt lakes) – sift brackish water shrimp through of the water Kingfishers Crows – particularly the fish crow. Eat fish and shoreline flesh Falconformes : ocean birds and ospreys

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