Second Semester Final Review .

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Category: Art / Culture
End of the Middle Ages (10.4-10.5). Dark Death (Bubonic Plague):Black passing slaughtered off numerous workers
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Second Semester Final Review Renaissance and Reformation (China, Japan, Americas)

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End of the Middle Ages (10.4-10.5) Black Death (Bubonic Plague): Black passing killed off numerous workers – those that remained were popular and could charge for their work. Workers utilized the cash they picked up to move to towns and live better lives. Magna Carta : Document made by a gathering of nobles keeping in mind the end goal to restrict the lords\' energy – King John is compelled to sign. Individuals couldn\'t be kept in prison w/out a reason . Reconquista : The effective exertion by Christian kingdoms in Europe to free Spain of the Moors (Muslims) that controlled bits of southern Spain.

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Renaissance Themes (11.2-11.3) Renaissance = Revival or Rebirth. Period after the finish of the Middle Ages where Europe started to prosper once more. Humanism : Belief that each individual has respect, worth, control. Praising human (individual) accomplishments. Accentuation on balanced instruction – investigating regular world, and additionally history, writing, and so forth. Recovery of the Classics: Renewed enthusiasm for all things Greek and Roman. Greek/Roman craftsmanship, writing, reasoning, and so on gets to be distinctly prevalent. Numerous Greek/Roman works come to Europe as Byzantine Christians fled from assaulting Muslim Turks.

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Reformation of Christianity (12.1) Catholic Church = degenerate amid Middle Ages Relics (religious ancient rarities) Simony (offering church positions) Indulgences (purchasing absolution from sins) * Indulgences could likewise be obtained for a friend or family member who may have kicked the bucket and may endure in limbo. Martin Luther : Luther starts reorganization by the posting of his " Ninety-Five Theses " on the congregation entryway in Wittenberg, Germany. Many individuals bolster the thoughts of Martin Luther since they too were troubled with the congregation. All ways the congregation utilized influence to gain more cash.

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Martin Luther (12.1) Luther builds up the accompanying thoughts: Salvation by Faith Alone – the Church showed that salvation was accomplished through confidence and acts of kindness (administered by the Church). All men ought to peruse the Bible themselves – the Church showed that the Bible should have been "translated" for average folks by the pastorate. Martin Luther makes an interpretation of Bible into German for everyday citizens to peruse. Course of events of Martin Luther: Posts Ninety-Five Theses on the entryway of the Wittenberg church. German Bishops send Luther\'s compositions to Pope Leo X. Luther is called before the Diet of Worms to abnegate (reclaim) his thoughts. Luther is marked as an apostate and expelled by the Pope. Luther burns through 1 year covering up in the mansion of King Frederick.

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Other Reformers (12.1) William Tyndale: Begins the reorganization in England. Trusted all individuals ought to have the capacity to peruse the Bible for themselves in their own dialect. Made an interpretation of the Bible into English. John Calvin: Developed the possibility of "destiny" – the possibility that God knew before somebody was conceived whether they would accomplish salvation. Lord Henry VIII: Only protestant reformer to break with the congregation for individual (as opposed to religious) reasons. Part from Catholic Church on the grounds that the Pope would not allow him a separation from his significant other. Starts the Anglican Church of England.

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Catholic Church versus Protestants Catholic Church Protestants God Catholic Church (Clergy) Catholic Church (Clergy) Common Man Common Man

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Effects of the Reformation (12.2) Catholic Spain: Catholic church stayed solid in Spain and protestants did not flourish. Spanish rulers set up the Spanish Inquisition (voyaging court) to search out and rebuff (by death) any Muslims, Jews or apostates, (for example, Protestants) in Spain. Spanish Inquisition = killed all restriction to the Catholic Church.

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Catholic "Counter" Reformation (12.2) Catholic "Counter" Reformation: Catholic church starts endeavors to change all alone terms (without "offering in" to protestants) Council of Trent : Meeting of Catholic Church authorities in 1545 to attempt to make changes. Built up obviously the lessons of the Catholic Church (as isolated from Protestants).

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The Fight Against Protestants (12.2) Catholic Church tries to keep Protestantism from spreading : Created religious courts to rebuff protestants (Italy). Made a rundown of books considered "perilous" (those composed by protestants) and debilitated to ban any individual who read them. Making new religious requests (like Jesuits) to help spread Catholic lessons.

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Catholic Missionaries (12.2) Catholic preachers Many Catholics needed to help the congregation develop as opposed to work to change the congregation. Objective = to spread Catholicism around the globe . A hefty portion of the Catholic ministers = Jesuits.

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Religious Divisions (12.3) France : Most French individuals are Catholic, yet some are protestants ( Huguenots ) – strife between two gatherings. French ruler chooses to fugitive Huguenots in France and take out all Protestants – pressures amongst Catholics and Protestants develop, battling increments. French lord chooses to permit Protestants again into France, however just in select areas. St. Bartholomew\'s Day Massacre – 3,000 protestants killed in Paris by Catholic agitators. Decree of Nantes – Edict given by lord permitting religious flexibility in the greater part of France – protestants permitted in many spots (with the exception of Paris and a couple of different urban communities).

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Religious Divisions – con\'t (12.3) 30 Years War : Began as a contention in Bohemia where Protestants were banned – subsequently, furious Protestants executed a few church pioneers and started a contention. War rapidly spread all through Europe – prompting to a progression of wars known as the Thirty Years\' War . In the end prompt to the Treaty of Westphalia: Allowed rulers to figure out if their nations would be Catholic or Protestant. Made Germany autonomous – Holy Roman Empire did not exist anymore.

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Scientific Revolution (13.1) Inspired by the recovery of the works of art found amid the Renaissance. Greek masterminds accentuated the utilization of perception and rationale. Greek thoughts were safeguarded through interpretations done by Muslim researchers.

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Scientific Thinkers (13.1) Important logical figures: Ptolemy – old space expert and geographer/outline = work in light of perceptions of the world. Nicolaus Copernicus - built up the idea that the earth (and all planets) circle the sun. Sir Isaac Newton – English researcher who built up the law of gravity, and two different laws of movement which clarified how the physical world functioned. Galileo Galilei – first individual to concentrate the sky with a telescope and to set-up analyses to test hypotheses.

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Theories on the Universe (12.2) Theories on the universe change: Ptolemy (Greek) trusted that the planets circle around the earth – earth is the focal point of the universe. Copernicus watches that the planets (counting earth) really pivot around the sun. Copernicus infers that planets move in unsurprising, oval circles around the sun.

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Science and the Church Church specialist = based upon the possibility that the congregation is "reliable" (never off-base). Logical review was making verification that a portion of the Church\'s lessons about the world were inaccurate – along these lines debilitating the Church\'s authenticity and power. Trial of Galileo: Galileo is attempted by the Inquisition in view of a book he distributed about the planets circling the sun – the Church said that the earth was the focal point of the universe.

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Age of Exploration (16.1) Why Europeans started to investigate : To secure Asian flavors (and different products) for exchange Europe. To find out about new grounds and individuals. To change over the entire of the world to Christianity. Scratch voyagers: Christopher Columbus – undertaking subsidized by Queen Isabella of Spain to locate another course to Asia, however arrived in the Caribbean. Francisco Pizarro – Conquistador traveler who vanquished the Inca Empire. Hernan Cortez – Conquistador traveler who vanquished the Aztec Empire. Ferdinand Magellan – however he kicked the bucket on the voyage, his men are best known for the main "circumnavigation" (going the distance around) of the globe.

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Columbian Exchange (16.2) Columbian Exchange = trade of plants, creatures and thoughts between the Old World (Europe) and the New World (Americas). European countries set-up provinces to get crude materials (wood, cotton, hides, and so on.)

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Enlightenment (17.1) Enlightenment : Time period in European history where people groups\' contemplations about theory, society and legislative issues were guided by "reason." Enlightenment builds up the possibility of " advance " from the Renaissance thought of Humanism . Much the same as researchers amid the Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment masterminds utilized perceptions to find the "regular laws" of the world.

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Enlightenment (17.2) In the 1600\'s – Europe was commanded by lords, rulers and rulers (Monarchy). Illumination starts to impact a few rulers in Europe – numerous rulers start to change the way they led so as to profit the ordinary people = Enlightened Despots .

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Enlightenment Thinkers (17.2) John Locke – English scholar who trusted that all individuals had " regular rights " like the privilege to life, freedom and property. Montesquieu – Built upon John Locke\'s thoughts to make the possibility of government that is partitioned into branches with a " detachment of force " to stay away from any one individual/amass having a lot of force. Rousseau – Believed that legislature ought to express the will of the general population = " mainstream sway. "

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