Section 15 Creatures of the Benthic Environment.

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Benthic living beings. Benthic life forms are those that live in or on the sea floorMore than 98% of known marine species are benthicThe greater part of benthic species live inside of the shallow mainland rack. Benthic biomass nearly matches surface efficiency. Figure 13-6. Surface efficiency.
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Part 15 Animals of the Benthic Environment Essentials of Oceanography 7 th Edition

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Benthic creatures Benthic living beings are those that live in or on the sea depths More than 98% of known marine species are benthic by far most of benthic species live inside the shallow mainland rack

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Benthic biomass nearly coordinates surface profitability Surface efficiency Figure 13-6 Benthic biomass Figure 15-1

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Rocky shores Most living beings live at first glance ( epifauna ) Zonation of rough shores: Spray zone (once in a while secured by water) High tide zone Middle tide zone Low tide zone (infrequently uncovered) Upper zones have generally shelled life forms Lower zones have some delicate bodied living beings and green growth

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Rocky shores: Intertidal zonation and life forms Figure 15-2a

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Sea anemone An awful predator keenly masked as a safe bloom yet outfitted with stinging cells Figure 15-4

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Sediment-secured shores Most living beings tunnel into the residue ( infauna ) Sediment-secured shores include: Beaches Salt bogs Mud pads

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Sediment-secured shores: Intertidal zonation and living beings Figure 15-8

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Sediment-secured shores: Modes of encouraging Figure 15-9

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How a shellfish tunnels Figure 15-10

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Shallow seaward sea depths Extends from the spring low-tide shoreline to the edge of the mainland retire Mostly dregs secured yet contains rough exposures Includes: Kelp woodlands Coral reefs

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Kelp timberlands Kelp backwoods are found on rough bottoms and give natural surroundings to numerous living beings Gant cocoa bladder kelp Macrocystis has a solid holdfast and gas-topped buoys Macrocystis can become off to 0.6 meter (2 feet) every day Figure 15-15a

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Coral reefs Coral reefs are hard, wave-safe structures made out of individual coral creatures (polyps) Individual coral polyps: Are about the measure of an insect Are identified with jellyfish Feed with stinging limbs Live appended to the ocean bottom in huge states Construct hard calcium carbonate structures for assurance Contain cooperative photosynthetic zooxanthellae green growth

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Coral reefs: Environmental conditions Coral reefs need: Warm water: 18-30 °C (64-86°F) Strong daylight (for advantageous green growth) Strong wave/momentum activity Lack of turbidity Salt water Hard substrate for connection Coral reefs found in shallow, tropical waters

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Coral reef dispersion and differing qualities Figure 15-18

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Coral reef zonation Figure 15-19

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Stages of coral reef improvement Figure 2-30

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Coral dying Coral fading happens when harmonious zoothanthellae green growth is evacuated or removed Associated with high water temperatures Figure 15B

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The profound sea floor Characteristics of the profound sea: Absence of daylight Temperatures around solidifying Average saltiness High broke up oxygen Extremely high weight Slow base streams (aside from deep tempests) Low sustenance supply

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Food hotspots for remote ocean living beings Figure 15-22

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Deep-ocean aqueous vent biocommunities Found in profound water close dark smokers along the mid-sea edge Do not depend on nourishment from sunlit surface waters Organisms include: Tube worms Clams Mussels Crabs Microbial mats

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Alvin approaches an aqueous vent biocommunity Figure 15-23

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Locations of remote ocean biocommunities Figure 15-24

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Deep-ocean vent biocommunity sustenance source: Chemosynthesis Deep-ocean vent biocommunities depend on microscopic organisms and archaeon that chemosynthesize Figure 15-25

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Other remote ocean biocommunities Low-temperature leak biocommunities are connected with: Hypersaline leaks Hydrocarbon leaks Subduction zone leaks

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End of Chapter 15 Essentials of Oceanography 7 th Edition

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