Section 17 Prologue to Quality and Measurable Procedure Control.


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Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. ... Get ready diagrams of the subgroup means and extents as a line outline. Business Statistics: A ...
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Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach 6 th Edition Chapter 17 Introduction to Quality and Statistical Process Control Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Chapter Goals After finishing this part, you ought to have the capacity to: Use the seven fundamental instruments of value Construct and translate x-bar and R-graphs Construct and decipher p-diagrams Construct and decipher c-outlines Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Chapter Overview Quality Management and Tools for Improvement Tools for Quality Improvement Philosophy of Quality Deming\'s 14 Points The Basic 7 Tools Control Charts Juran\'s 10 Steps to Quality Improvement X-bar/R-graphs p-diagrams c-outlines Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Themes of Quality Management Primary center is on procedure change Most varieties in procedure are because of frameworks Teamwork is vital to quality administration Customer fulfillment is an essential objective Organization change is fundamental It is vital to evacuate dread Higher quality costs less Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Deming\'s 14 Points 1. Make a consistency of reason toward change turn out to be more aggressive, stay in business, and give employments 2. Embrace the new rationality Better to enhance now than to respond to issues later 3. Quit contingent upon review to accomplish quality - work in quality from the begin Inspection to discover imperfections toward the end of creation is past the point of no return 4. Quit honoring contracts on the premise of low offers Better to manufacture long-run buyer/supplier connections Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Deming\'s 14 Points (proceeded with) 5. Enhance the framework ceaselessly to enhance quality and along these lines continually lessen costs 6. Organization preparing at work Workers and administrators must know the distinction between normal cause and uncommon cause variety 7. Establishment authority Know the contrast amongst initiative and supervision 8. Drive out trepidation so that everybody may work adequately. 9. Separate boundaries between divisions with the goal that individuals can act as a group. Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Deming\'s 14 Points (proceeded with) 10. Wipe out trademarks and focuses for the workforce They can make antagonistic connections 11. Dispose of portions and administration by targets 12. Expel obstructions to pride of workmanship 13. Establishment an enthusiastic system of instruction and self-change 14. Make the change everybody\'s employment Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Juran\'s 10 Steps to Quality Improvement 1. Manufacture familiarity with both the requirement for development and the open door for development 2. Set objectives for development 3. Arrange to meet the objectives that have been set 4. Give preparing 5. Execute ventures went for taking care of issues Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Juran\'s 10 Steps to Quality Improvement (proceeded with) 6. Report progress 7. Give acknowledgment 8. Impart the outcomes 9. Keep track of who\'s winning 10. Keep up energy by building change into the organization\'s general frameworks Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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The Deming Cycle Plan The Deming Cycle Act Do The key is a nonstop cycle of change Study Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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The Basic 7 Tools Process Flowcharts Brainstorming Fishbone Diagram Histogram Trend Charts Scatter Plots Statistical Process Control Charts Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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The Basic 7 Tools (proceeded with) Process Flowcharts Brainstorming Fishbone Diagram Histogram Trend Charts Scatter Plots Statistical Process Control Charts Map out the procedure to better envision and comprehend open doors for development Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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The Basic 7 Tools (proceeded with) Process Flowcharts Brainstorming Fishbone Diagram Histogram Trend Charts Scatter Plots Statistical Process Control Charts Fishbone (circumstances and end results) outline: Cause 1 Cause 2 Sub-causes Problem Sub-causes Cause 4 Cause 3 Show examples of variety Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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The Basic 7 Tools (proceeded with) Process Flowcharts Brainstorming Fishbone Diagram Histogram Trend Charts Scatter Plots Statistical Process Control Charts Identify pattern y time Examine connections y x Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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The Basic 7 Tools (proceeded with) Process Flowcharts Brainstorming Fishbone Diagram Histogram Trend Charts Scatter Plots Statistical Process Control Charts Examine the execution of a procedure after some time X time Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Introduction to Control Charts Control Charts are utilized to screen variety in a deliberate quality from a procedure Exhibits pattern Can make adjustment before procedure is crazy A procedure is a repeatable arrangement of steps prompting a particular objective Inherent variety alludes to process variety that exists normally. This variety can be diminished however not wiped out Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Process Variation Total Process Variation Common Cause Variation Special Cause Variation = + Variation is characteristic; intrinsic in our general surroundings No two items or administration encounters are precisely the same With a sufficiently fine gage, all things can be seen to vary Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Sources of Variation Total Process Variation Common Cause Variation Special Cause Variation = + Variation is regularly because of contrasts in: People Machines Materials Methods Measurement Environment Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Common Cause Variation Total Process Variation Common Cause Variation Special Cause Variation = + Common cause variety actually happening and expected the consequence of ordinary variety in materials, instruments, machines, administrators, and the earth Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Special Cause Variation Total Process Variation Common Cause Variation Special Cause Variation = + Special cause variety unusual or unforeseen variety has an assignable cause variety past what is viewed as inborn to the procedure Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Statistical Process Control Charts Show when changes in information are because of: Special or assignable causes Fluctuations not inborn to a procedure Represents issues to be redressed Data outside control points of confinement or pattern Common causes or risk Inherent irregular varieties Consist of various little reasons for arbitrary variability Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Control Chart Basics Special Cause Variation: Range of surprising variability UCL Common Cause Variation: scope of expected variability +3 σ Process Average - 3 σ LCL time UCL = Process Average + 3 Standard Deviations LCL = Process Average – 3 Standard Deviations Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Process Variability Special Cause of Variation: An estimation this a long way from the procedure normal is impossible if just expected variety is available UCL ±3 σ → 99.7% of procedure qualities ought to be in this extent Process Average LCL time UCL = Process Average + 3 Standard Deviations LCL = Process Average – 3 Standard Deviations Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Statistical Process Control Charts Statistical Process Control Charts X-bar outlines and R-graphs p-diagrams c-graphs Used for measured numeric information Used for extents (quality information) Used for number of properties per inspecting unit Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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x-bar diagram and R-outline Used for measured numeric information from a procedure Start with no less than 20 subgroups of watched qualities Subgroups for the most part contain 3 to 6 perceptions every Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Steps to make a x-outline and a R-diagram Calculate subgroup means and ranges Compute the normal of the subgroup implies and the normal reach esteem Prepare diagrams of the subgroup means and ranges as a line graph Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Steps to make a x-diagram and a R-graph (proceeded with) Compute the upper and lower control limits for the x-bar outline Compute the upper and lower control limits for the R-diagram Use lines to demonstrate as far as possible on the x-bar and R-diagrams Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Example: x-diagram Process estimations: Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Average of Subgroup Means and Ranges Average of subgroup means: Average of subgroup reaches: where: x i = i th subgroup normal k = number of subgroups where: R i = i th subgroup range k = number of subgroups Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 6e © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computing Control Limits The upper and lower control

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