Section 28 The Reproductive Systems .

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28-2. Chromosomes in Somatic Cells
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´╗┐Section 28 The Reproductive Systems Sexual proliferation delivers new people germ cells called gametes (sperm & second oocyte) preparation produces one cell with one arrangement of chromosomes from each parent Gonads create gametes & discharge sex hormones Reproductive frameworks gonads, conduits, organs & supporting structures Gynecology is investigation of female regenerative framework Urology is investigation of urinary framework & male conceptive framework

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Chromosomes in Somatic Cells & Gametes Somatic cells (diploid cells) 23 sets of chromosomes for a sum of 46 each match is homologous since contain comparable qualities in same request one individual from each combine is from each parent 22 autosomes & 1 sets of sex chromosomes sex chromosomes are either X or Y females have two X chromosomes guys have a X and a littler Y chromosome Gametes (haploid cells) single arrangement of chromosomes for an aggregate of 23 delivered by extraordinary sort of division: meiosis

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quadruplicate Meiosis I - Prophase I Chromosomes get to be distinctly unmistakable, mitotic axle shows up, atomic layer & nucleoli vanish Events not found in prophase of Metaphase or Meiosis II synapsis all duplicates of homologous chromosomes match off shaping a quadruplicate traverse segments of chromatids are traded between any individuals from the quadruplicate parts of maternal chromosomes might be traded with fatherly ones hereditary recombination produces gametes not at all like either parent

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Exchange of Genetic Material Chromosomes are traded between chromatids on homologous chromosomes

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Meiosis I - Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I In metaphase I, homologous sets of chromosomes line up along metaphase plate with joined microtubules In anaphase I, each arrangement of homologous chromatids held together by a centromere are pulled to inverse finishes of the isolating cell Telophase I and cytokinesis are like mitotic division Result is 2 cells with haploid number of chromosomes

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Meiosis II Consists of 4 stages : prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II and telophase II Similar strides in this phone procedure as in mitosis centromeres split sister chromatids partitioned and move toward inverse posts of the phone Each of the girl cells delivered by meiosis I separates amid meiosis II and the net outcome is 4 hereditarily one of a kind haploid cells or gametes.

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Male Reproductive System Gonads, conduits, sex organs & supporting structures Semen contains sperm in addition to glandular emissions

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Scrotum Sac of free skin, belt & smooth muscle isolated into two pockets by septum Skin contains dartos muscle causes wrinkling Temperature control of testicles sperm survival requires 3 degrees bring down temperature than center body temperature cremaster muscle in spermatic string hoists testicles on introduction to icy & amid excitement warmth turns around the procedure

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Scrotal Sacs, Dartos & Cremaster Mm

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Testes Paired oval organs measuring 2 in. by 1in. Encompassed by thick white case called tunica albuginea septa frame 200 - 300 compartments called lobules Each is loaded with 2 or 3 seminiferous tubules where sperm are shaped

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Descent of Testes Develop close kidney on back stomach divider Descends into scrotum by going through inguinal trench amid seventh month of fetal advancement

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Tunica Vaginalis Tunica vaginalis Piece of peritoneum that slid with testicles into scrotal sac. Takes into consideration less demanding development of testicles inside scrotum

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Cryptorchidism Testes don\'t drop into the scrotum 3% of full-term & 30% of untimely babies Untreated two-sided cryptorchidism brings about sterility & a more serious danger of testicular disease Descend suddenly 80% of time amid the primary year of life surgical treatment vital before year and a half

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Formation of Sperm Spermatogenesis is arrangement of sperm cells from spermatogonia.

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Location of Stages of Sperm Formation Seminiferous tubules contain all phases of sperm advancement: spermatogonia, essential spermatocyte, optional spermatocyte, spermatid, spermatozoa supporting cells called sertoli cells Leydig cells in the middle of tubules discharge testosterone

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Supporting Cells of Sperm Formation Sertoli cells - stretch out from storm cellar film to lumen frame blood-testis obstruction bolster creating sperm cells deliver liquid & control arrival of sperm into lumen emit inhibin which moderates sperm generation by repressing FSH

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Spermatogenesis Spermatogonium (foundational microorganisms) offer ascent to 2 girl cells by mitosis One little girl cell kept for possible later use - different gets to be distinctly essential spermatocyte Primary spermatocyte experiences meiosis I DNA replication quadruplicate arrangement traverse

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Spermatogenesis Secondary spermatocytes are framed 23 chromosomes of which each is 2 chromatids joined by centromere experiences meiosis II 4 spermatids are shaped each is haploid & special every one of the 4 stay in contact with cytoplasmic scaffold represents synchronized arrival of sperm that are half X chromosome & half Y chromosome

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Spermiogenesis & Spermiation Spermiogenesis = development of spermatids into sperm cells Spermiation = arrival of a sperm cell from a sertoli (sustentacular) cell

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Sperm Morphology Adapted for achieving & entering an auxiliary oocyte Head contains DNA & acrosome (hyaluronidase and proteinase catalysts) Midpiece contains mitochondria to shape ATP Tail is flagellum utilized for velocity

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Hormonal Control of Spermatogenesis Puberty hypothalamus expands its incitement of foremost pituitary with discharging hormones front pituitary builds emission LH & FSH LH invigorates Leydig cells to discharge testosterone a compound in prostate & fundamental vesicles changes over testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT-more intense) FSH animates spermatogenesis with testosterone, empowers sertoli cells to emit androgen-restricting protein (keeps hormones levels high) testosterone fortifies last strides spermatogenesis

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Hormonal Effects of Testosterone & DHT tie to receptors in cell core & change hereditary movement Prenatal impact is conceived a male At pubescence, last improvement of second sexual qualities and grown-up conceptive framework sexual conduct & drive male digestion system (bone & bulk heavier) extending of the voice

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Control of Testosterone Production Negative input framework controls blood levels of testosterone Receptors in hypothalamus distinguish increment in blood level Secretion of GnRH impeded Anterior pituitary (FSH & LH hormones) hindered Leydig cells of testicles impeded Blood level returns typical

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Effect of Inhibin Hormone Sperm creation is adequate sertoli cells discharge inhibin restrains FSH discharge by the front pituitary reductions sperm generation Sperm creation is continuing too gradually less inhibin is discharged by the sertoli cells more FSH will be emitted sperm creation will be expanded

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Pathway of Sperm Flow through the Ducts of the Testis Seminiferous tubules Straight tubules Rete testis Efferent channels Ductus epididymis Ductus (vas) deferens

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Epididymis Comma-molded organ, 1.5in long along back fringe of every testis Head, body and tail district Multiple efferent conduits turn into a solitary ductus epididymis in the head area 20 foot tube if uncoiled Tail locale proceeds as ductus deferens

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Histology of the Epididymis Ductus epididymis fixed with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium layer of smooth muscle Site of sperm development motility increments more than 2 week time frame Storage for 1-2 months Propels sperm forward

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Ductus (Vas) Deferens Pathway of 18 inch strong tube rises along back outskirt of epididymis leaves behind through spermatic string and inguinal tendon achieves back surface of urinary bladder exhausts into prostatic urethra with original vesicle Lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium & secured with substantial covering of muscle pass on sperm along through peristaltic constrictions put away sperm stay feasible for a while

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Spermatic Cord All structures going to and from the testicles testicular course pampiniform plexus of veins autonomic nerves lymphatic vessels ductus (vas) deferens cremaster muscle

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Vasectomy Male sanitization Vas deferens cut & tied off Sperm generation proceeds with Sperm worsen 100% powerful 40% reversible

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Inguinal Canal & Inguinal Hernias Inguinal waterway is 2 inch long passage going through the 3 muscles of the front stomach divider - debilitates divider starts at profound inguinal ring and finishes at shallow ring Indirect hernia - circle of digestive tract jutting through profound ring Direct hernia - circle of digestive system pushes through back mass of inguinal trench More regular in guys

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Ejaculatory Ducts Formed from pipe of fundamental vesicle & ampulla of vas deferens About 1 inch long Adds liquid to prostatic urethra just before discharge

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Urethra 8 inch long way for pee & semen Prostatic urethra (1 inch long) Membranous urethra (goes through UG stomach ) Penile (springy) urethra (through corpus spongiosum)

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Accessory Sex Glands

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Seminal Vesicles Pair of pouchlike organs discovered back to the base of bladder Alkaline, gooey liquid kills vaginal corrosive & male urethra fructose for ATP creation prostaglandins fortify sperm motility & feasibility thickening proteins for coagulation of semen Posterior View

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Prostate Gland Single organ the span of chestnut discovered substandard compared to bladder Secretes smooth, pH 6.5 liquid that builds sperm motility and reasonability citrus extract for ATP generation & chemicals for fundamental liquefaction Many pipe openings Enlarges with age

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Bulbourethral or

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