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Chapter 3. Social Perception: Perceiving and Understanding Others. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;
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Section 3 Social Perception: Perceiving and Understanding Others This mixed media item and its substance are secured under copyright law. The accompanying are disallowed by law: any open execution or show, including transmission of any picture over a system; readiness of any subsidiary work, including the extraction, in entire or to a limited extent, of any pictures; any rental, rent, or loaning of the program. Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Social Perception Nonverbal Communication Attribution Impression Formation and Impression Management Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Social Perception Social Perception — handle through which individuals try to know and comprehend others Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication — correspondence between people that depends on an implicit dialect of outward appearances, eye contact, and non-verbal communication Basic channels Facial expressions — uncover current inclinations/sentiments Eye contact — demonstrates constructive emotions (with the exception of gazing ) Body dialect (motions, pose, developments) — uncovers enthusiastic states, social seals Touching — proposes love, sexual intrigue, strength, mindful, hostility Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Nonverbal Communication Recognizing Deception: The Role of Nonverbal Cues Microexpressions — short lived outward appearances enduring just a couple of tenths of a second Interchannel disparities (nonverbal signals are conflicting) Eye contact (flicker all the more, curiously low or high eye contact) Exaggerated outward appearances (excessively expansive grin) Linguistic Style — parts of discourse separated from the importance of the words utilized (pitch of voice) Lies are less perplexing, less identified with the self, and more contrary. Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Nonverbal Communication What are your musings? Which channels of nonverbal correspondence are the most solid? Why? What clarifies why ladies are by and large superior to anything men are at sending and deciphering nonverbal prompts? Why is it hard to discern whether somebody is lying? Why is it regularly harder for ladies to identify misdirection than it is for men? Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution — prepare through which individuals try to distinguish the reasons for others\' conduct thus pick up information of their steady characteristics and auras Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Theories of Attribution Jones and Davis\' (1965) Theory of Correspondent Inference — depicts how individuals utilize others\' conduct as a reason for inducing their steady miens What variables are viewed as essential in this procedure? Conduct is uninhibitedly picked. Conduct yields noncommon impacts — impacts delivered by a specific cause that couldn\'t be created by whatever other obvious cause . Conduct is low in social attractive quality (or irregular). Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Kelley\'s (1972) hypothesis of causal attributions People quality the reason for others\' conduct to inside or outer variables. Inner — brought on by individual\'s characteristics (mien) External — created by circumstance To clarify other\'s conduct the accompanying are utilized: Consensus — degree others act in same path toward the boost Consistency — degree individual dependably carries on along these lines toward the jolt Distinctiveness — degree individual reacts similarly toward various boosts Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Kelley\'s (1972) hypothesis of causal attributions People quality the reasons for others\' conduct to interior elements when: Consensus and uniqueness are low, yet consistency is high. Individuals trait the reasons for others\' conduct to outside elements when: Consensus, consistency, and peculiarity are all high. Individuals quality the reasons for others\' conduct to a blend of inside and outer variables when: Consensus is low, however consistency and uniqueness are high. Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Other measurements of causal attributions (other than inward outside) are steady unsteady and controllable-wild, which all impact judgments concerning moral duty. At the point when numerous potential foundations for conduct are available, the next may happen: Discounting Principle — propensity to join less significance to one potential reason for some conduct when other potential causes are likewise present Augmenting Principle — inclination to append more prominent significance to a potential reason for conduct if the conduct happens regardless of the nearness of other, inhibitory causes Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Some Basic Sources of Error Correspondence Bias (Fundamental attribution blunder ) — propensity to clarify others\' activities as coming from airs even within the sight of clear situational causes; inclination to overestimate the effect of dispositional components This mistake is more normal or more grounded in nonconformist societies (Western Europe, the United States, and Canada). This mistake is conferred against gatherings, and also people. Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Some Basic Sources of Error Actor-Observer Effect — propensity to ascribe possess conduct principally to situational causes, however the conduct of others fundamentally to inside (dispositional) causes Self-Serving Bias — inclination to credit positive results to interior causes, yet negative results to outside causes Cognitive and motivational variables may clarify this predisposition. This predisposition is more grounded in nonconformist societies. Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Applications of Attribution Theory Attribution and Depression Depressed people regularly demonstrate a self-vanquishing example of attributions, which is the inverse of the self-serving predisposition. Ascribe pessimistic results to steady, inward causes Attribute constructive results to brief, outer causes Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution Applications of Attribution Theory Attribution in Workplaces Attributions influence how individuals see lewd behavior . Men are more probable than ladies are to ascribe fault to the casualty. Changing men\'s attributions with respect to lewd behavior may anticipate it. Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Attribution What are your considerations? What are contrasts amongst Jones and Davis\' journalist deduction hypothesis and Kelley\'s causal attribution hypothesis? What are reasons why the principal attribution mistake, the performing artist eyewitness impact, and the self-serving predisposition happen? What are clarifications for the social contrasts in the inclination to confer a portion of the attribution mistakes? Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Impression Formation Asch\'s (1946) Research on Impression Formation Impression Formation includes more than consolidating singular attributes. Understood Personality Theories — convictions about what qualities or attributes have a tendency to go together These speculations are like a mapping. Certain hypotheses can impact the impressions of others more than individuals\' real attributes. An illustration is the understood identity hypothesis individuals hold with respect to the relationship between birth request and identity attributes. Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Impression Formation Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Impression Formation A Cognitive Perspective How do individuals consolidate assorted data about others into a bound together impression of them? Individuals shape impressions by averaging accessible data. What sort of data do individuals concentrate on when meeting others interestingly? Individuals concentrate first on data about others\' attributes, qualities, and standards. Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Impression Formation Other Aspects of Impression Formation First impressions include two noteworthy parts: Concrete cases of practices steady with a given quality (models of the characteristic ) Mental outlines disconnected from rehashed perceptions of others (reflections) Motives impact the sort of impressions individuals type of others. Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Impression Management Impression Management (Self-Presentation) — endeavors to create good initial introductions on others Research shows that it has constructive outcomes. Strategies of impression administration Self-upgrade — help one\'s speak to others Boost physical appearance, brag about capacities Other-improvement — initiate positive states of mind in others Use blandishment, express preferring, concur with their perspectives If abused, strategies can boomerang ( ooze impact can happen). Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Impression Management The part of high subjective load In many circumstances, it can meddle with individuals\' endeavors to give others a positive impression of them. Early introductions on the run: Speed dating People are given seven minutes to awe potential dates. Look into demonstrates that by and large individuals seem to shape introductory judgments about others in around maybe a couple minutes. Copyright 2006, Allyn and Bacon

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Impression Formation and Management What are your musings? Could initial introductions of others be changed? What are procedures individuals can utilize to change an unfavorable initial introduction that somebody framed of them? What are the points of interest and detriments of speed dating? In the event that you were searching for a sentimental accomplice, would you consider attempting it? Why or why not?

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