Section 3: Conducted and Wireless Media .


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Chapter 3: Conducted and Wireless Media. Objectives . After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Outline the characteristics of twisted pair wire, including the advantages and disadvantages Outline the differences among Category 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5e, 6, and 7 twisted pair wire
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Section 3: Conducted and Wireless Media

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Objectives After perusing this section, you ought to have the capacity to: Outline the qualities of bent combine wire, including the focal points and burdens Outline the distinctions among Category 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5e, 6, and 7 turned match wire Explain when protected contorted match wire works superior to anything unshielded wound combine wire Outline the attributes, focal points, and detriments of coaxial link and fiber-optic link

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Objectives (proceeded with) Outline the attributes of satellite microwave frameworks, including the favorable circumstances and inconveniences and also the distinctions among low-Earth-circle, center Earth-circle, geosynchronous circle, and exceedingly circular Earth circle satellites Describe the nuts and bolts of cell phones, including all the present eras of cell frameworks Outline the qualities of short-range transmissions, including Bluetooth

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Objectives (proceeded with) Describe the attributes, preferences, and hindrances of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), broadband remote frameworks, and different remote neighborhood transmission strategies Apply the media determination criteria of cost, speed, right-of-way, separation and expandability, environment, and security to different media in a specific application

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Introduction The universe of PC systems and information interchanges would not exist if there were no medium by which to exchange information Two noteworthy classifications of media include: Conducted media Wireless media

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Twisted Pair Wire at least two sets of single director wires curved around each other Twisted combine wire is ordered by classification Category 1 through Category 6 NOTE: Categories 2 and 4 are outdated Twisting the wires disposes of electromagnetic obstruction Shielding can facilitate dispense with impedance

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Twisted Pair Wire (proceeded)

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Twisted Pair Wire (proceeded)

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Twisted Pair Wire (proceeded)

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Twisted Pair Wire (proceeded)

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Coaxial Cable Single wire wrapped in froth protection encompassed by a plaited metal shield, then secured in a plastic coat Cable can be thick or thin Baseband coaxial innovation utilizes advanced flagging Cable conveys stand out station of computerized information Broadband coaxial innovation transmits simple signs Capable of supporting various stations of information

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Coaxial Cable (proceeded)

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Coaxial Cable (proceeded)

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Fiber Optic Cable A thin glass link roughly somewhat thicker than a human hair encompassed by a plastic covering and bundled into a protected link A photograph diode or laser produces beats of light which go down the fiber optic link and are gotten by a photograph receptor

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Fiber Optic Cable (proceeded)

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Fiber-Optic Cable (proceeded)

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Fiber-Optic Cable (proceeded with) It is exceptionally normal to blend fiber with bent combine in LANs

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Fiber-Optic Cable (proceeded)

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Wireless Media Radio, satellite transmissions, and infrared light are all extraordinary types of electromagnetic waves used to transmit information Note in the accompanying figure how every source involves an alternate arrangement of frequencies

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Wireless Data (proceeded)

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Terrestrial Microwave Transmission Land-based, observable pathway transmission Approximately 20-30 miles most extreme between towers Transmits information at a huge number of bits every second Popular with phone organizations and business to business transmissions

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Terrestrial Microwave Transmission (proceeded)

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Terrestrial Microwave Transmission (proceeded with) Often, microwave recieving wires are on towers and structures

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Satellite Microwave Transmission Similar to earthbound microwave aside from flag goes from a ground station on earth to a satellite and back to another ground station Satellites can be grouped by how far out into space every one is (LEO, MEO, GEO, and HEO)

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Satellite Microwave Transmission (proceeded)

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Satellite Microwave Transmission (continued) LEO (Low Earth Orbit) - 100 miles to 1000 miles Used for pagers, remote email, unique cell phones, spying, videoconferencing MEO (Middle Earth Orbit) - 1000 to 22,300 miles Used for GPS (worldwide situating frameworks) and government GEO (Geosynchronous Orbit) - 22,300 miles Always over similar position on earth (as a rule over the equator) Used for climate, TV, and government operations

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Satellite Microwave Transmission (proceeded) HEO (Highly Elliptical Orbit) Used by the military for spying and by logical associations for shooting heavenly bodies When satellite is far out into space, it takes photographs When satellite is near earth, it transmits information

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Satellite Microwave Transmission (proceeded)

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Satellite Configurations Satellite microwave can likewise be characterized by its design: Bulk bearer setup Multiplexed design Single-client earth station setup (e.g. VSAT)

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Satellite Configurations (proceeded)

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Cellular Telephone Wireless telephone utility Also called cell phone, PDA, and PCS To bolster various clients in a metropolitan region (advertise), the market is broken into cells Each phone has its own transmission tower and set of assignable stations

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Cellular Telephones (proceeded)

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Cellular Telephones (proceeded)

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Cellular Telephones (proceeded with) 1 st Generation AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) - first famous cell phone benefit Uses simple signs and powerfully alloted recurrence division multiplexing D-AMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service) - applies computerized time division multiplexing on top of AMPS

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Cellular Telephones (proceeded with) 2 nd Generation PCS (Personal Communication Systems) - all-advanced cell phone benefit 2 nd era PCS telephones came in three innovations: TDMA - Time division different get to CDMA - Code division numerous get to GSM - Global framework for portable correspondences

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Cellular Telephones (proceeded) 2.5 Generation GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) – now utilized by AT&T Wireless, Cingular Wireless, and T-Mobile (earlier VoiceStream) in their GSM systems Can transmit information at 30 kbps to 40 kbps CDMA2000 1xRTT (one transporter radio - transmission innovation) – utilized by Verizon Wireless, Alltel, U.S. Cell, and Sprint PCS 50 kbps to 75 kbps IDEN innovation – utilized by Nextel

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Cellular Telephones (proceeded with) Future GPRS ought to inevitably be supplanted with EDGE 110 130 kbps potentially took after by WCDMA at 200 kbps – 300 kbps 1xRTT ought to in the long run be supplanted with 1xEVDV at 300 – 400 kbps and 1xEVDO at 150 Kbps to 250 kbps

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Cellular Digital Packet Data Technology that backings a remote association for the exchange of PC information from a portable area to open phone organize and the Internet Can be utilized as a part of conjunction with cell phones and smart phones computerized exchange Relatively moderate at 19,200 bps Emergency administrations make utilization of CDPD

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Infrared Transmissions Special transmissions that utilization an engaged beam of light in the infrared recurrence go Very normal with remote control gadgets Can likewise be utilized for gadget to-gadget exchanges, for example, PDA to PC

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Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) WAP permits remote gadgets, for example, cell phones, PDAs, pagers, and two-path radios to get to the Internet Designed to work with little screens and restricted intuitive controls Incorporates Wireless Markup Language (WML) which is utilized to indicate the organization and presentation of content on the screen

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Wireless Application Protocol (continued) WAP might be utilized for applications, for example, Travel headings Sports scores E-mail Online address books Traffic cautions Banking News Possible deficiencies include: Low speeds Security Very little UI

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Wireless Application Protocol (proceeded)

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Broadband Wireless Systems Delivers Internet administrations into homes and organizations Designed to sidestep the neighborhood circle phone line Transmits voice, information and video over high recurrence radio signs

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Broadband Wireless Systems (continued)

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Broadband Wireless Systems (continued) Two fundamental advancements: Multichannel multipoint appropriation benefit (MMDS) – underpins computerized information, video, Internet get to, millions bps, 2.5 GHz, 30-35 miles Local multipoint conveyance benefit (LMDS) – advanced information, video, Internet get to, millions bps, 28 GHz – 30 GHz, however just a couple of miles

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Bluetooth Radio Frequency particular for short-run, indicate multipoint voice and information exchange Can transmit through strong, non-metal protests Its commonplace connection range is from 10 cm to 10 m Can be reached out to 100 m by expanding the power

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Bluetooth (proceeded) Will empower clients to interface with an extensive variety of processing and media transmission gadgets without the need of interfacing links Typical uses incorporate telephones and pagers, modems, LAN get to gadgets, headsets, journals, desktop PCs, and PDAs Want to go to the films?

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Wireless Local Area Networks IEEE 802.11 This innovation transmits information amongst workstations and neighborhood utilizing rapid radio frequencies Current advances permit up to 54 Mbps information exchange at separations up to several feet More on this in Chapter Seven (LANs)

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Free Space Optics Uses lasers, or more temperate infrared transmitting gadgets Line of sight between structures Typically short separations, for example, over the road Newer auto-following frameworks keep lasers adjusted when structures shake from wind and movement .:tslidese

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