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Chapter 5: Historical Foundations.


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Chapter 5: Historical Foundations Trace the history of physical education, exercise science, and sport from earliest times to the present. Identify events that served as catalysts for physical education, exercise science, and sport’s growth.
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Part 5: Historical Foundations Trace the historical backdrop of physical instruction, exercise science, and game from most punctual times to the present. Recognize occasions that served as impetuses for physical instruction, exercise science, and sport’s development. What are late advancements in physical instruction, exercise science, and game?

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The Field of Sport History Emerged as a subdiscipline in the late 1960s and mid 1970s. “… field of insightful request with various and frequently converging foci, including work out, the body, play, diversions, games, sports, physical entertainments, wellbeing, and leisure.” (Struna) How has the past formed game and its encounters today? 1973: North American Society for Sport History held its initially meeting.

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Sample Areas of Study... How did urbanization impact the advancement of games in America? How did the games exercises of Native Americans impact the recreational quest for the early homesteaders? How have Greek beliefs impacts the improvement of sportsmanship?

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Ancient Nations: China Influence of seclusion because of geography and Great Wall Influence of Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism which focused on the insightful life Physical action implied individual opportunity of expression, which was as opposed to the antiquated teachings. Con Fu vaulting: To keep the body in great natural condition and ward off specific infections brought on by inertia. Exercises : wrestling, jujitsi, boxing, ts’ u chu, ch’ui wan, shuttlecoach, and kite flying

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Ancient Nations: India Strong religious impact of Buddism and Hinduism. Concentrate on profound needs, not the body's needs and common things. Buddism accentuated right living and considering, including abstinence, to help the spirit achieve an awesome state. Exercises Yoga, tossing, tumbling, chariot races, riding elephants and steeds, marbles, swordsmanship, moving, wrestling, foot races

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Ancient Nations: Ancient Near East Ancient Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, Syria, Palestine, and Persia had confidence in carrying on with a full life, incorporating taking part in physical action Influence from the military to construct a more grounded armed force Emphasize quality, stamina, perseverance, readiness for imperialistic means, not for the person. Exercises Gymnastics, horsemanship, bow and bolt, water exercises, wrestling, bouncing, chasing, angling, physical molding for quality and stamina

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Greece “Golden Age” of physical training and game Striving for flawlessness, including physical improvement Vital piece of the instruction of each Greek kid “Exercise for the body and music for the soul” Gymnastics - strength, teach, and physical prosperity, a feeling of reasonable play, and crudeness National celebrations

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Greece - Sparta Main target of physical training and game was to manufacture an intense armed force. People were subservient to the state and needed to guard the state against foes. Ladies and men were obliged to be in great physical condition. agoge - an arrangement of open, obligatory physical preparing for young men Activities wrestling, bouncing, running, spear and disk, walking, horseback riding, and chasing

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Greece: Athens (Sparta’s absolute opposite) Democratic government Physical action to create bodies, for stylish quality, and to carry on with an all the more full, lively life. Tumbling honed in a palaestra and administered by a paidotribe. Exercise rooms turned into the physical, social, and scholarly focuses of Greece. Guideline was given by an acrobat.

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Greece: National Festivals The establishment for the current Olympic diversions. Olympic Games first held in 776 B.C. also, proceeded with like clockwork until canceled by Romans in 394 A.D . Led out of appreciation for a saint or god Consisted of moving, devouring, singing, and occasions of physical ability Athletic occasions were the fundamental fascination, despite the fact that support was for the most part constrained to men . Unbending arrangement of prerequisites for interest in the recreations, including unprofessional quality Truce announced by all city-states amid the celebrations' season Victors won a wreath of olive branches; most elevated respect that could be offered in Greece.

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Rome Exercise for wellbeing and military purposes . Unbending preparing calendar for warriors: walking, running, bouncing, swimming, tossing lance and disk Greek aerobatic were acquainted with Rome after the success of Greece however were not mainstream Rome did not have confidence in the “body beautiful” Preferred to be observers instead of members Preferred demonstrable skill to unprofessional quality . Energizing “ blood sports ”: gladiatorial battles and chariout races. “Duel to the death” or fulfillment of onlookers.

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Medieval Europe: The Dark Ages Fall of the Roman Empire (476 A.D.) Physical and good rot of the Roman individuals Physically solid Teutonic brutes overran the Empire and acquired the best decay learning known not. Individuals took an interest in chasing, incredible outside game, and fighting, in this manner building solid, fit bodies. The spread of Christianity offered ascent to religious austerity. Scholasticism

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Age of Feudalism (Between ninth and fourteenth hundreds of years) Feudalism was an arrangement of area residency in view of faithfulness and administration to the aristocrat or the master. Vocation open doors for a nobleman’s child: Church - religious and scholarly instruction Knighthood - training accentuated physical, social, and military preparing Knights jousts and competitions

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Renaissance (fourteenth to16th hundreds of years) Feudal framework supplanted by governments. Time of Enlightment, restoration of learning, confidence in pride of people. Men were being taught with the printing's innovation press and foundation of more schools and colleges. Humanism: “A sound personality in a sound body.”

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Renaissance Leaders Educational open doors for the basic individuals also, however few for females. Class contrasts show up in interest of a few games. Physical training was vital for learning, fundamental for wellbeing, and arrangement for fighting. Vittorino da Feltra Francois Rabelais Michel de Montaigne John Comenius John Milton Martin Luther John Locke John Jacques Rousseau

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Modern Europe: Germany Basedow - incorporation of physical instruction in the school’s educational modules. Guts Muth - “ Gymnastics for the Young ” and “ Games ” - outlined different activities and mechanical assembly; clarified the relationship of physical instruction to training Jahn - Turnverein social orders to construct solid and tough subjects; turnplatz (activity ground)

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Modern Europe: Germany Spiess - Founder of school vaulting in Germany. Schools ought to be keen on the aggregate development of the individual; Physical instruction ought to get the same thought as other scholastic subjects Adapted physical movement for young ladies and young men Exercises joined with music Progressive project

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Modern Europe: Sweden Per Henik Ling Scientific investigation of physical training Establishment of preparing organizations Design of gymnastic projects to meet particular individual needs 3 Types : Educational vaulting, military aerobatic, and restorative acrobatic Teachers of physical training must have foundational learning of the impacts of activity on the human body.

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Modern Europe: Sweden Branting Devoted his opportunity to medicinal vaulting Understanding of the impacts of tumbling on the strong and additionally apprehensive and circulatory frameworks Nyblaeus Military aerobatic and the incorporation of ladies Hjalmar Fredick Ling Organization of school acrobatic in Sweden for young men and young ladies.

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Modern Europe: Denmark Nachtegall Introduced physical instruction into the government funded schools Teacher planning Bukh “primitive gymnastics” - assemble a flawless constitution by performing activities without suspension of development.

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Great Britain Home of open air games Wrestling, tossing, riding, angling, chasing, swimming, paddling, skating, arrow based weaponry, hockey, quoits, tennis, football (soccer), cricket Maclaren - Eager to make physical preparing a science; a framework that was embraced by the British Army Health is more imperative than quality Exercise adjusted to the individual physical training key in school educational programs

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Influences of PE in the U.S. European goals Systems of tumbling (activities) Philosophies of physical training Ancient Asian societies Yoga Martial expressions Relationships between the psyche, body, and soul

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Colonial Period (1607-1783) Colonists drove an agrarian presence - physical action through performing assignments crucial to living and survival. Pioneers carried games with them from their local terrains. Puritans reprimanded play as malevolent; recreational interests grimaced upon. Perusing, written work, and number juggling in schools, not physical training.

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National Period (1784-1861) Growth of tuition based schools for females Introduction of German vaulting to schools 1852: First intercollegiate rivalry: a group race in the middle of Harvard and Yale. Catherine Beecher (1800-1878) Calisthenics performed to music One of the first to advocate for day by day physical instruction Invention of baseball Horseracing, foot races, paddling, and betting on game occasions

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Civil War Period until 1900 Turnverein social orders keep on growwing and incorporate both young ladies and young men Dio Lewis Programs for the “weak and feeble” in the public arena Training school for educators in Boston Inclusion of gymnastic projects in the schools Nissen - Swedish Movement Cure develops in ubiquity and perceived for its inalienable medicinal qualities YMCA built up; worldwide preparing school at Springfield College

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Civil War Period until 1900 Growth of American game in pr