Section 6.


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Part 6 Social Structure Hypothesis Financial Structure and Wrongdoing The U.S. is a stratified society: social strata are made by the unequal appropriation of riches, influence, and eminence.
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Part 6 Social Structure Theory

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Socioeconomic Structure and Crime The U.S. is a stratified society: social strata are made by the unequal conveyance of riches, influence, and eminence. Social classes are fragments of the populace who offer states of mind, qualities, standards, and an identifiable way of life The neediness rate is 2003 was 12.5 percent Nearly 36 million individuals live in destitution

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Figure 6.1 Number in Poverty and Poverty Rates, 1959-2003

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Socioeconomic Structure and Crime Child Poverty amid ahead of schedule youth has a more extreme effect than amid youthfulness Low wage kids are more averse to accomplish in school and more prone to endure wellbeing issues Social issues in lower-class ghetto regions are plague Nearly 25 percent of youngsters under age 6 live in neediness

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Figure 6.2 Poverty Rates by Age, 1959-2003

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Socioeconomic Structure and Crime Weblink www.aecf.org/kidscount

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Socioeconomic Structure and Crime The Underclass Culture of destitution is gone starting with one era then onto the next Gunnar Myrdal proposed that a “underclass” was cut off from society Unemployment and underemployment disturbs family life and makes despair

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Socioeconomic Structure and Crime Minority Group Poverty 20 percent of African Americans and Hispanics live in destitution 10 percent of Whites live in neediness William Julius Wilson recommends burdened minorities guide their animosity toward those near them

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Social Structure Theories Social and monetary strengths in crumbled lower-class territories push occupants into criminal conduct designs Social structure hypotheses incorporate, social disruption, strain hypothesis, and social abnormality hypothesis Each hypothesis recommends that socially confined individuals living in disordered ranges are the ones destined to experience wrongdoing creating social powers

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Figure 6.3 The Three Branches of Social Structure Theory

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Social Disorganization Theories Links wrongdoing rates to neighborhood environmental attributes Social confusion incorporates low wage bunches with vast single-guardian families and organizations of separated social control Residents in wrongdoing ridden regions are attempting to leave at the most punctual open door

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Figure 6.4 Social Disorganizational Theory

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Social Disorganization Theories The Work of Shaw and McKay Linked transitional ghetto regions to the slant to carry out wrongdoing Transitional neighborhoods are unequipped for instigating inhabitants to safeguard against criminal gatherings Concentric zone mapping distinguished the internal city transitional zones as having the heaviest centralization of wrongdoing. Ghetto youngsters decide to join packs when qualities are in struggle with existing working class standards Crime rates compare to neighborhood structure as indicated by Shaw and McKay

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Figure 6.5 Shaw and McKay’s Concentric Zones Map of Chicago

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Social Disorganization Theories The Social Ecology School Community crumbling: Associated with wrongdoing Disorder, neediness, distance, separation, and apprehension of wrongdoing are normal for group weakening Poverty fixation: Economically impeded neighborhoods have higher rates of genuine law violations (focus impact) Chronic unemployment: Limited job destabilizes family units

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Social Disorganization Theories Community dread: Social and physical incivilities build the trepidation of wrongdoing (i.e. graffiti, whores, soil, and clamor) Race and apprehension: Fear by Whites depends on racial generalizations. Dread by minorities is more noteworthy Gangs and trepidation: Open exercises of shameless posse movement makes group apprehension Mistrust and trepidation: A “siege mentality” creates in light of doubt of the outside world Community change: Communities experiencing quick auxiliary changes experience incredible changes in wrongdoing rates (gentrification) Change and decay: Neighborhoods most at danger contain expansive quantities of single-guardian families and social strain

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CNN Clip - New Approaches To Gang Problems

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Social Disorganization Theories Collective Efficacy Cohesive groups create interpersonal ties and shared trust Informal Social Control: Involves associates, families, and relatives Institutional Social Control: Involves schools, houses of worship, organizations, social offices Public Social Control: Policing Social bolster/Altruism: wrongdoing rates are lower in territories with a constructive social atmosphere

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Strain Theories that view wrongdoing as an immediate aftereffect of lower-class disappointment and annoyance. Anomie (from the Greek word a nomos, without standards) – in an anomic culture principles of conduct have separated on account of quick social change, war, or starvation. Mechanical solidarity: pre-modern styled social orders held together by conventions and shared qualities Organic solidarity: Complex post-modern social orders which are related for administrations and needs

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Figure 6.6 The Basic Components of Strain Theory

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Strain Theories Theory of Anomie (Robert K. Merton) Merton contended that socially ordered objectives are uniform all through society and access to true blue intends to accomplish those objectives is bound by class and status Some individuals have insufficient intends to achieve societal objectives. Methods of Social Adaptation Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism Rebellion

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Table 6.2 Typology of Individual Mode of Adaptation

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Strain Theories Evaluation of Anomie Theory Social disparity prompts view of anomie People advance to determine objectives means strife Merton’s hypothesis does not clarify why individuals pick certain sorts of wrongdoing

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Strain Theories Institutional Anomie Theory (Steven Messner & Richard Rosenfeld) Update of Merton’s hypothesis portrays the “American Dream” as both an objective and a procedure Goals allude to material products and riches Process includes being associated to seek after material achievement Certain foundations have been rendered frail and out of date in controlling anomie, for example, religious and altruistic organizations Economic terms are a typical\'s piece American vernacular

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Strain Theories Relative Deprivation Theory Perceptions of financial and social imbalance lead to sentiments of jealousy, question, and hostility Lower-class individuals feel both denied and disenthralled Minorities feel relative hardship more intensely than nonminorities

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Strain Theories General Strain Theory Robert Agnew GST clarifies why people who feel stretch and strain carry out wrongdoing Negative Affective States: resentment, disappointment, and antagonistic feelings rise in ruinous connections

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Figure 6.7 Elements of General Strain Theory

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Strain Theories Multiple Sources of Stress Criminality is the immediate consequence of adverse full of feeling states Failure to accomplish absolutely esteemed objectives Disjunction of desires and accomplishments Removal of emphatically esteemed boosts Presentation of contrary jolts Agnew recommends the more prominent the force and recurrence of strain encounters, the more probable guiltiness will happen

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Strain Theories Sources of Strain Social sources: Peer and social gatherings Community sources: Relative hardship delivering pessimistic full of feeling states in expansive populace fragments

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Strain Theories Coping with Strain Juveniles high in contrary emotionality and low imperative are prone to respond with solitary practices Crime gives alleviation from strain and anxiety for a few individuals Expectations increment with development, which may diminish the wellsprings of strain

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Strain Theories Evaluating GST Sources of strain shift over the life course Empirical confirmation bolsters that markers of social strain are connected with culpability Gender issues: GST does not sufficiently represent sexual orientation contrasts in wrongdoing rate. Females may be associated to turn stretch internal, though guys turn their disappointment outwards through hostility Evidence proposes that individuals who neglect to meet achievement objectives will probably take part in criminal conduct

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Cultural Deviance Theory Combines the impacts of social disruption and strain to clarify guiltiness Lower classes make an autonomous subculture with its own arrangement of tenets and qualities Subcultural standards conflict with customary qualities

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Figure 6.8 Elements of Cultural Deviance Theory

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Cultural Deviance Theory Conduct Norms Thorsten Sellin recommended criminal law is an outflow of the predominant\'s principles society Culture struggle happens when the guidelines communicated in the criminal law conflict with the requests of behavior standards

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Cultural Deviance Theory Focal Concerns Walter B. Mill operator recognized the central worries of the lower-class situations Trouble Toughness Smartness Excitement Fate Autonomy sticking to lower class central concerns advances unlawful or fierce conduct.

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Cultural Deviance Theory of Delinquent Subcultures Albert Cohen recommends lower-class adolescents dissent again the standards and estimations of the working class (status disappointment) Teachers, head honchos, and power figures set the gauges alluded to as white collar class measuring bars Cohen battles lower-class young men will shape degenerate subcultures when baffled

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Cultural Deviance Theory Formation of the Deviant Subculture Corner kid: Most basic reaction to white collar class dismissal, takes part in trivial or status offenses College kid: grasps social and social estimations of the white collar class, is not well prepared scholastically, socially, and phonetically to accomplish Delinquent kid: embraces qualities and standards contrary to white collar class qualities, participates in short-run debauchery (response development)

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Cultural Deviance Theory of Differential Opportunity Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin proposed individuals hav

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