Section 6: Knowledge-based Decision Support and Artificial Intelligence .


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Section 6: Information based Choice Backing and Computerized reasoning. Administrative Chiefs are Information Specialists They Utilize Learning in Choice Making Issue: Availability to Information Learning Based Choice Backing Through Connected Manmade brainpower Instruments.
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Part 6: Knowledge-based Decision Support and Artificial Intelligence Managerial Decision Makers are Knowledge Workers They Use Knowledge in Decision Making Issue: Accessibility to Knowledge-Based Decision Support Through Applied Artificial Intelligence Tools Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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6.1 Opening Vignette: A Knowledge-based DSS in a Chinese Chemical Plant The Problem Dalian Dyestuff plant Managers decided claim generation arranges The Solution DSS with a learning base part Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Subsystems Production Planning Accounting and Cost Control Financing and Budgeting Inventory and Material Management Control Information Services LP-based generation arranging model in model base Two Expert Systems (ES) to Plan month to month creation and Analyze working capital Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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The Expert System Generates a proposed arrange Models the working capital Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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ES Advantages Combines quantitative and subjective examination Provides adaptability and flexibility Involved leaders Allows better and more proficient choices Increased benefit by more than $1 million/year (around a 10% expansion) Allows clients to express inclinations and skill Improves administration to clients Improved the aggressive position of the plant Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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6.2 Artificial Intelligence (AI) Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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AI Concepts and Definitions Encompasses Many Definitions AI Involves Studying Human Thought Processes (to Understand What Intelligence Is) AI Deals with Representing Thought Processes on Machines Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Artificial Intelligence Artificial knowledge is conduct by a machine that, if performed by a person, would be called smart (all around pitched) "Artificial Intelligence is the investigation of how to make PCs get things done at which, right now, individuals are better" (Rich and Knight [1991]) AI is fundamentally a hypothesis of how the human personality functions (Mark Fox) Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Objectives of Artificial Intelligence (Winston and Prendergast [1984]) Make machines more brilliant (essential objective) Understand what insight is (Nobel Laureate reason) Make machines more valuable (entrepreneurial reason) Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Signs of Intelligence Learn or comprehend for a fact Make sense out of equivocal or opposing messages Respond rapidly and effectively to new circumstances Use thinking to take care of issues (Continued on next page) Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Signs of Intelligence (cont\'d) Deal with puzzling circumstances Understand and Infer in common, objective ways Apply learning to control the earth Think and reason Recognize the relative significance of various components in a circumstance Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Turing Test for Intelligence A PC can be thought to be brilliant just when a human questioner, "chatting" with both an inconspicuous individual and a concealed PC, couldn\'t figure out which will be which Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Symbolic Processing Use Symbols to Represent Problem Concepts Apply Various Strategies and Rules to Manipulate these Concepts Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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AI: Represents Knowledge as Sets of Symbols An image is a series of characters that stands for some certifiable idea Examples Product Defendant 0.8 Chocolate Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Symbol Structures (Relationships) (DEFECTIVE item) (LEASED-BY item respondent) (EQUAL (LIABILITY litigant) 0.8) tastes_good (chocolate). Choice Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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AI Programs Manipulate Symbols to Solve Problems Symbols and Symbol Structures Form Knowledge Representation Artificial insight is the Branch of Computer Science Dealing Primarily with Symbolic , N onalgorithmic Methods of Problem Solving Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Characteristics of Artificial Intelligence Numeric versus Symbolic Algorithmic versus Nonalgorithmic Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Heuristic Methods for Processing Information Search Inferencing Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Reasoning - Inferencing from Facts and Rules utilizing heuristics or other pursuit approaches Pattern Matching Attempt to portray articles, occasions, or procedures as far as their subjective elements and coherent and computational connections Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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6.3 Artificial Intelligence versus Natural Intelligence Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Commercial Advantages of AI Over Natural Intelligence AI is more perpetual AI offers simplicity of duplication and scattering AI can be less costly AI is reliable and careful AI can be archived AI can execute certain undertakings significantly speedier than a human can AI can play out specific errands superior to numerous or even a great many people Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Natural Intelligence Advantages over AI Natural insight is innovative People utilize tactile experience specifically Can utilize a wide setting of involvement in various circumstances AI - Very Narrow Focus Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Information Processing Computers can gather and process data effectively People intuitively Recognize connections between things Sense qualities Spot designs that clarify connections BUT , AI innovations can give critical change in efficiency and quality Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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6.4 Knowledge in Artificial Intelligence Knowledge incorporates the verifiable and unequivocal confinements put upon items (elements), operations, and connections alongside general and particular heuristics and surmising methods required in the circumstance being displayed Of information, data, and learning, KNOWLEDGE is most theoretical and in the littlest amount Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Uses of Knowledge comprises of truths, ideas, speculations, heuristic strategies, techniques, and connections Knowledge is additionally data sorted out and investigated for understanding and material to critical thinking or basic leadership Knowledge base - the gathering of information identified with an issue (or opportunity) utilized as a part of an AI framework Typically constrained in some particular, normally limit , branch of knowledge or area The restricted space of learning, and that an AI framework must include some subjective parts of basic leadership ( basic for AI application achievement) Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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Knowledge Bases Search the Knowledge Base for Relevant Facts and Relationships Reach One or More Alternative Solutions to a Problem Augments the User (Typically a Novice) Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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6.5 How Artificial Intelligence Differs from Conventional Computing Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson Copyright 1998, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

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