Section 7:.

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Section 7: Social Stratification and Social Class What's in store in This Part... What is Social Stratification? Social Versatility Stratification Frameworks Measurements of Stratification Hypotheses of Stratification Social Class in the United States Neediness in the United States
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Section 7: Social Stratification and Social Class

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What to Expect in This Chapter... What is Social Stratification? Social Mobility Stratification Systems Dimensions of Stratification Theories of Stratification Social Class in the United States Poverty in the United States Consequences of Social Stratification

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What is Social Stratification? Social stratification is “...the division of society into levels, steps or positions” Stratification is, basically, the organized imbalance of whole classifications of individuals Stratification is not the same as insignificant disparity , which alludes to the uneven circulation of chances and prizes to people and gatherings. At the point when these imbalances gets to be organized into society and went on from era to era, we have social stratification

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Social portability alludes to the development of persons or gatherings starting with one social stratum then onto the next Social versatility is more conceivable in open social orders which give more noteworthy chances to portability, than in shut social orders which alters one’s position during childbirth Sociologists recognize a few sorts of versatility Social Mobility

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Sociologists have distinguished a few basic level variables which affect the probability of social versatility Economic Conditions Number of individuals in the workforce Values and instructive level Factors Affecting Social Mobility

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Caste frameworks are extremely inflexible, shut frameworks of stratification in light of attributed qualities, for example, skin shading or family personality Estate frameworks are additionally shut frameworks construct to a great extent in light of legacy Class frameworks are open frameworks that allow significant social portability Types of Stratification Systems

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Dimensions of Social Stratification Wealth— the financial resources of an individual, including pay, fiscal resources and different property Power —the capacity to accomplish objectives and keep up impact over others, even without their assent Prestige— the approbation and appreciation got from different individuals from society

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Prestige Rankings of Various Occupations Click Image to go to Occupational Outlook Handbook

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Theories of Stratification: Functionalist Theory You will recollect that functionalist hypothesis comprehends society as a “system” or “organism” As functionalists, Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore fought that stratification was a need for society in light of the fact that: Society has various positions that must be satisfied on the off chance that it is to work appropriately Some positions, however are more imperative for the support of society (e.g., doctors) Finally, a few positions oblige exceptional gifts that are not by and large pervasive in the populace Hence, practically vital positions and/or positions obliging uncommon ability are compensated most profoundly

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Criticisms of Functional Theory Ex Post Facto Judgment of Functional Importance of Positions Critics address the utilitarian significance of certain exceedingly remunerated positions, for example, performing artists and games figures, as opposed to positions, for example, teachers or social specialists The Stratification System itself Inhibits Talent and Abilities Many boundaries are put in the method for people from lower classes to keep them from contending successfully

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Theories of Stratification: Marxist Conflict Theory Suggests that social stratification is dictated by the relations of generation bourgeoisie- - industrialists who own the method for creation low class - wage workers who offer their work to bourgeoisie Interests of these two classes are naturally contradicted Power of the entrepreneurs permits them to force their will and understand their hobbies According to Marx, the low class will inevitably build up a class cognizance , and at last oust the business people

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Social Class in the United States Sociologists are not concurred regarding how social classes ought to be recognized Most normally, 5 classes are distinguished: Upper Class Upper-Middle Class Lower Middle Class Working Class Lower Class Each of these classes speak to contrasts in both salary and way of life attributes

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Poverty Approximately 12 million individuals formally live in neediness As clarified on the accompanying a few slides: Poverty does not influence all fragments of the populace just as There is difference among social researchers about how to gauge destitution, and henceforth difference about what amount of neediness exists in the United States Visit PovertyNet Online

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Poverty’s Biggest Victims: Ethnicity

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Poverty’s Biggest Victims: Gender Female headed families are enormously overrepresented among those in neediness Female householders without spouses had normal yearly wage of $ 23,732 in 1999 Male householders without wives had normal yearly wage of $37,396 in 1999 This marvel has come to be called “the feminization of poverty”

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How Do We Count the Poor? The authority “poverty index” was produced by the Social Security Administration in 1964 It depended on before studies that found that groups of 3 or more individuals ordinarily spent around 1/3 of their financial plan on sustenance The destitution list is accordingly in view of the yearly cost of a cheap yet satisfactory eating routine x 3 The edge of neediness will in this way rely on upon the quantity of people living in a family

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Threshold of Poverty, 1999

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Myths About the Poor Myth #1: People are poor in light of the fact that they are languid Fact: About a large portion of the poor are not of working age; a large portion of those of working age are either living up to expectations or searching for work Myth #2: Most needy individuals are African-American and most African-Americans are poor Fact: Most needy individuals are white; around 28% of African-Americans are poor Myth #3: Most of the poor are single parents with youngsters Fact: Female-headed families with kids speak to around 44% of the poor Myth #4: Most individuals in destitution live in the inward city Fact: Less than 22% of the poor live in focal urban areas Myth #5: Welfare projects are straining government spending plans Fact: Only around 14% of the elected spending plan went to welfare programs in 1996, contrasted with 43% that went to other social help projects, for example, standardized savings and Medicare

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Consequences of Social Stratification Longevity Health and Illness Childbearing and Childrearing Crime and Crimi

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