Section 8 Quality ManagementSlide 2
Total Quality Management Defined Quality Specifications and Costs Six Sigma Quality and Tools External Benchmarking ISO 9000 Service Quality Measurement OBJECTIVESSlide 3
Total Quality Management (TQM) Total quality administration is characterized as dealing with the whole association so it exceeds expectations on all measurements of items and administrations that are essential to the clientSlide 4
Quality Specifications Design quality : Inherent estimation of the item in the commercial center Dimensions include: Performance, Features, Reliability/Durability, Serviceability, Esthetics, and Perceived Quality. Conformance quality : Degree to which the item or administration outline particulars are metSlide 5
Appraisal Costs External Failure Costs Prevention Costs Internal Failure Costs of Quality Costs of QualitySlide 6
Six Sigma Quality A theory and set of strategies organizations use to dispose of deformities in their items and procedures Seeks to lessen variety in the procedures that prompt to item deserts The name, "six sigma" alludes to the variety that exists inside give or take six standard deviations of the procedure yieldsSlide 7
Six Sigma Quality (Continued) Six Sigma permits chiefs to promptly portray prepare execution utilizing a typical metric: Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO)Slide 8
Six Sigma Quality (Continued) Example of Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) figuring. Assume we watch 200 letters conveyed inaccurately to the wrong addresses in a little city amid a solitary day when an aggregate of 200,000 letters were conveyed. What is the DPMO in this circumstance? Along these lines, for each one million letters conveyed this current city\'s postal supervisors can hope to have 1,000 letters mistakenly sent to the wrong address. Cost of Quality: What may that DPMO mean regarding after some time work to remedy the blunders?Slide 9
Six Sigma Quality: DMAIC Cycle Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) Developed by General Electric as a method for centering exertion around quality utilizing a methodological approach Overall concentration of the procedure is to comprehend and accomplish what the client needs A 6-sigma program looks to lessen the variety in the procedures that prompt to these deformities DMAIC comprises of five stages… .Slide 10
Six Sigma Quality: DMAIC Cycle (Continued) 1. Characterize (D) Customers and their needs 2. Measure (M) Process and its execution 3. Break down (A) Causes of imperfections 4. Enhance (I) Remove reasons for imperfections 5. Control (C) Maintain qualitySlide 11
Example to delineate the procedure… We are the creator of this oat, which is publicized 16 ounces for each crate. Purchaser Reports has quite recently distributed an article that demonstrates that we much of the time have under 15 ounces of grain in a case. What would it be advisable for us to do?Slide 12
Step 1 - Define What is the basic to-quality trademark? The CTQ (basic to-quality) trademark for this situation is the heaviness of the oat in the container.Slide 13
2 - Measure How might we quantify to assess the degree of the issue? What are satisfactory points of confinement on this measure?Slide 14
2 – Measure (proceeded with) Let\'s expect that the legislature says that we should be inside ± 5 percent of the weight promoted on the crate. Upper Tolerance Limit = 16 + .05(16) = 16.8 ounces Lower Tolerance Limit = 16 – .05(16) = 15.2 ouncesSlide 15
2. Measure (proceeded with) We go out and purchase 1,000 boxes of grain and find that they weight a normal of 15.875 ounces with a standard deviation of .529 ounces. What rate of boxes are outside as far as possible?Slide 16
Process Mean = 15.875 Std. Dev. = .529 Upper Tolerance = 16.8 Lower Tolerance = 15.2 What rate of boxes are flawed (i.e. under 15.2 oz)? Z = (x – Mean)/Std. Dev. = (15.2 – 15.875)/.529 = - 1.276 NORMSDIST(Z) = NORMSDIST(- 1.276) = .100978 Approximately, 10 percent of the cases have under 15.2 Ounces of oat in them!Slide 17
Step 3 - Analyze - How would we be able to enhance the ability of our grain box filling process? Diminish Variation Center Process Increase SpecificationsSlide 18
Step 4 – Improve – How great is sufficient? Motorola\'s "Six Sigma" 6 s least from process focus to closest specSlide 19
Motorola\'s "Six Sigma" Implies 2 ppB "terrible" with no procedure move With 1.5 s move in either bearing from focus (process will move), infers 3.4 ppm "awful".Slide 20
Step 5 – Control Statistical Process Control (SPC) Use information from the real procedure Estimate circulations Look at capacity - is great quality conceivable Statistically screen the procedure after some timeSlide 21
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Flow Chart No , Continue… Material Received from Supplier Inspect Material for Defects found? Yes Can be utilized to discover quality issues Return to Supplier for CreditSlide 22
0.58 Diameter 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.5 0.48 0.46 0.44 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time (Hours) Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Run Chart Can be utilized to distinguish when hardware or procedures are not carrying on as indicated by particularsSlide 23
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Pareto Analysis Can be utilized to discover when 80% of the issues might be ascribed to 20% of the causes 80% Frequency Design Assy. Educate . Purch. PreparingSlide 24
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Checksheet Can be utilized to monitor imperfections or used to ensure individuals gather information in a right way Monday Billing Errors Wrong Account Wrong Amount A/R Errors Wrong Account Wrong AmountSlide 25
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Histogram Can be utilized to recognize the recurrence of value deformity event and show quality execution Number of Lots 0 1 2 3 4 Defects in parcel Data RangesSlide 26
Machine Man Effect Environment Method Material Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Cause & Effect Diagram The outcomes or impact Possible causes: Can be utilized to methodicallly track in reverse to locate a conceivable reason for a quality issue (or impact)Slide 27
UCL 1020 1010 1000 LCL 990 980 970 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Control Charts Can be utilized to screen progressing generation handle quality and quality conformance to expressed measures of valueSlide 28
Other Six Sigma Tools Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (DMEA) is an organized way to deal with distinguish, gauge, organize, and assess danger of conceivable disappointments at every phase in the process Design of Experiments (DOE) a factual test to decide circumstances and end results connections between process factors and yieldSlide 29
Six Sigma Roles and Responsibilities Executive pioneers must champion the procedure of change expansive preparing in Six Sigma ideas and devices Setting stretch goals for development Continuous fortification and prizesSlide 30
The Shingo System: Fail-Safe Design Shingo\'s contention: SQC strategies don\'t avoid abandons Defects emerge when individuals make blunders Defects can be forestalled by giving laborers input on mistakes Poka-Yoke incorporates: Checklists Special tooling that keeps specialists from making mistakesSlide 31
ISO 9000 Series of models settled upon by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Adopted in 1987 More than 100 nations An essential for worldwide rivalry? ISO 9000 guides you to "document what you do and after that do as you documented"Slide 32
Three Forms of ISO Certification 1. To start with gathering: A firm reviews itself against ISO 9000 principles 2. Second gathering: A client reviews its provider 3. Outsider: A "qualified" national or universal models or affirming organization fills in as reviewerSlide 33
External Benchmarking Steps 1. Recognize those procedures requiring change 2. Distinguish a firm that is the world pioneer in playing out the procedure 3. Contact the administrators of that organization and make an individual visit to meeting supervisors and specialists 4. Dissect informationSlide 34
Service Quality Measurement:Servqual An apparent administration quality poll review philosophy Examines "Measurements of Service Quality" including: Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy, and Tangibles (e.g., appearance of physical offices, gear, and so forth.)Slide 35
Service Quality Measurement: Servqual (Continued) New form of this procedure is called "e-Service Quality" managing administration on the Internet Dimensions of Service Quality on the e-Service system include: Reliability, Responsiveness, Access, Flexibility, Ease of Navigation, Efficiency, Assurance/Trust, Security/Privacy, Price Knowledge, Site Esthetics, and Customization/PersonalizationSlide 36
Question Bowl Which of the accompanying are Dimensions of Design Quality? Execution Durability Esthetics All of the above None of the above Answer: d. The greater part of the aboveSlide 37
Question Bowl Approximately what rate of each business dollar is designated to the "cost of value"? Under 5% About 10% Between 15 and 20 % More than 30% None of the above Answer: c. In the vicinity of 15 and 20 % (for cost of adjusting, rejecting, rehashed benefit, and so on.)Slide 38
Question Bowl Which of the accompanying are orders of the "cost of value"? Examination costs Prevention costs Internal disappointment costs External disappointment costs All of the above Answer: e. The majority of the aboveSlide 39
Question Bowl Which of the accompanying are elements of a quality control division? Testing item outlines for unwavering quality Gathering item execution information Planning and planning the QC program All of the above None of the above Answer: d. The greater part of the aboveSlide 40
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