Section Eight: Islam.

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Islamic Architecture. Elements of Islamic mosques. Group gathering ... What part did Islamic society play in the custom of Western scholarly (and, ...
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Section Eight: Islam

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Muhammad and the Birth of Islam Muhammad conceived in Mecca (570) Polytheistic culture Married Khadija Daughter Fatima – image of devotion and virtue Revelations of God through Gabriel Qur\'an (Koran)

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Five Pillars of Islam Recitation of the Muslim demonstration of confidence There is no God yet God, and M. is his prophet Obligation of supplication 5 times each day – confronting Mecca Charity 1/40 th wage Fasting amid Ramadan Daylight hours Pilgrimage ( Haj )

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Hegria Muhammad escapes Mecca Goes to Medina to begin an Islamic culture Islam – accommodation to God Muslim – one who submits

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Practices of Islam No pork, liquor Male circumcision Polygamy satisfactory Usury prohibited Observation of gala days Simplicity and religious austerity Rapid development and spread of religion

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The Qur\'an Central content of Islam Collation of Muhammad\'s oral disclosures 114 sections ( sûras ) Written in Arabic Cannot be deciphered for petition/recitation Source of unifications for all Muslims Qur\'an , Hadith , Shari\'a

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Calligraphy "Wonderful composition" Kufic (trademark structure) Decorative element of mosques Abstract, geometric plans with content No delineations of holiness Arabesque No story scenes (typically)

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Islamic Architecture Functions of Islamic mosques Community gathering focuses Large assembling range Minbar – podium Michrab – specialty confronting Mecca Fountains – ritualized purifying

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Islamic Architecture: The Dome of the Rock Temple Mount, Jerusalem Octagonal building, brilliant vault Roman+Byzantine design Lavish mosaics – secured by tile Qur\'anic verses in inside

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Islamic Architecture: Mosque of Damascus Originally a Roman Temple, then a Christian Church Lavish inside enrichment Marble Byzantine mosaics

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Islamic Architecture: Mosque in Córdoba Muslim capital in Spain Rival of Great Mosque of Damascus Al-Hakam Constantinople artisans, laborers 17 tons of tesserae Survived the Reconquista

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[Image 8.8] Maqsura screen of the Córdoba Mosque

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Islamic Architecture: The Alhambra Exterior : complex of towers and dividers Infusion of inside streams Palace of the Myrtles Public events Palace of the Lions Private home Pinnacle of richness

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Islamic Architecture: Taj Mahal Mughal rule 1526-1858 Emperor Shah Jahan Tribute to spouse, Mumtaz Mahal Dome on octagonal structure Highly cleaned white marble Restrained outside adornment Inspired by Qur\'an

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[Image 8.10] Taj Mahal

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Sufism Sunni and Shi\'a conventions Sufism = magical measurement of Islam Sheyks and followers Retirement in destitution Piety and contrition Sufi tariqas in North Africa, Egypt

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Sufi Writers Saint Rabia Aphorisms, lyrics, reflections Focus on the adoration for God "have nothing… aside from Allah" Rumi Persian ballads (rhyming couplets) Discourses on enchanted encounters Recitation and development ( dervishes )

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The Culture of Islam and the West Abbasid Dynasty "Place of Wisdom" Translations of Greek writings Advances in science, pharmaceutical Al-Khwarizmi, Al-Uqlidisi, Al-Hazen, Rhazes, Avicenna, Averröes Moses Maimonides, Jewish doctors

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The Culture of Islam and the West Exchange of merchandise/thoughts Quality swords, silk (damask), espresso Lexicon commitments Al-Ghazali The Incoherence of the Philosophers Averröes "He of the Great Commentary" The Incoherence of Incoherence

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Chapter Eight: Discussion Questions In what ways are the Five Pillars of Islam like the fundamental principles of Christianity? Clarify the similitudes and contrasts between the two religions. What part did Islamic society play in the custom of Western artistic (and, in this manner, philosophical) thought? What conditions encouraged this commitment? What exactly should we trait the moderate development of thoughts from their Islamic beginnings toward the Western world? Does the Western group today, as you would see it, relegate satisfactory reputation to those non-Western propelled masterminds? What are the ramifications of perceiving the starting point of an innovation? Clarify.

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