Semantics Chapter 5Slide 2
Semantics Language utilizes an arrangement of etymological signs, each of which is a mix of significance and phonological or potentially orthographic structures. Semantics is generally characterized as the investigation of significance in dialect.Slide 3
Semantics Linguists and word reference producers confront extensive issues in managing meaning. There are two customary schools of hypotheses of importance: the reference hypothesis and the representation hypothesis . Some have been attempting to build up meanings of the implications of words so that the importance of etymological expressions can be given. Saeed (1997) calls it the definition hypothesis.Slide 4
The referential hypothesis The referential hypothesis holds that a phonetic sign gets its significance from something in the truth. For instance, words like man, fish, are important in that they each allude to an individual or an accumulation of living creatures existing in the truth. Be that as it may, some phonetic signs, similar to apparition, mythical beast, unicorn , simply signify something innovative.Slide 5
The representational hypothesis The representational hypothesis holds that dialect when all is said in done, and words specifically, are just a symbol (or representation) for a real thing (or shape) being symbolized. As such, they invoke in our psyches photos of the things, happenings and thoughts. In any case, there are various capacity words, for example, an, a, the, or , which "conjure" no photos of this kind.Slide 6
Types of significance According to Leech (1981), there exist seven sorts of importance, five of which are incorporated into the affiliated significance.Slide 7
Conceptual importance This alludes to the definition given in the lexicon. It is broadly thought to be the focal consider semantic correspondence and is basic to the basic working of dialect. For instance, man can be characterized by the contrastive components [+Human], [+Male], [+Adult], as unmistakable from young lady, which can be characterized as [+Human], [-Male], [-Adult].Slide 8
Associative significance This alludes to the importance connected with the reasonable significance, which can be further isolated into taking after five sorts: Connotative （内涵的） meaning: the open esteem credited to an expression well beyond its absolutely theoretical importance. ladySlide 9
Associative importance Social significance: what is conveyed of the social conditions of dialect utilize, including varieties like lingo, time, theme, style. Full of feeling importance: the emotions and states of mind of the speaker/author towards the audience as well as what is discussing.Slide 10
Associative significance Reflected importance: the significance when we relate one feeling of an expression with another. Collocative significance: what is imparted through relationship with words which have a tendency to happen in nature of another word.Slide 11
Thematic importance This is what is conveyed by the path in which the message is sorted out as far as request and accentuation. (1) The young fellow gave the book intentionally. (2) The book was given by a young fellow deliberately.Slide 12
Ambiguity alludes to the semantic wonder in which one etymological expression permits more than one understandings or translations. Lexical equivocalness Structural uncertaintySlide 13
Lexical vagueness The different significance of the expression relies on upon the importance of the single word. For instance, the sentence "I saw him at the bank" could be vague.Slide 14
Structural uncertainty The various significance of the articulation relies on upon the sentence structure. For instance, the accompanying sentences take into account two understandings when we ascribe diverse elucidations to its structure: Flying kites can be hazardous. Mike didn\'t beat his better half since he cherishes her.Slide 15
Ambiguity is not alluring much of the time. We can utilize the accompanying intends to disambiguate the tricky expressions: (1) Pragmatic components (2) Lexical or linguistic gadgets (3) Phonological gadgetsSlide 16
Pragmatic elements Relate an equivocal expression to the unique situation. For instance, seeing an angling pole bar can typically legitimize our elucidation of the word bank in the sentence "I saw him at the bank." as "the stream bank".Slide 17
Lexical or syntactic gadgets Use some lexical and additionally syntactic gadgets to modify the etymological setting, i.e. the words and expressions happening before or after a lexical thing, e.g. a. the bank of the stream b. the wealthiest bank in the city.Slide 18
Phonological gadgets Stresses can likewise dispense with lexical and additionally linguistic vagueness, e.g. a. Do you know anything about the `greenhouse impact? b. Do you know anything about the green `house?Slide 19
The Traditional Approach Ogden and Richards (1923) contend that the connection amongst words and things can be made just using mind. For each word, there is a related idea. They introduce the accompanying triangle:Slide 21
The Functional Approach Functional etymologists accentuate the social part of dialect and view dialect as "social semiotic". As indicated by Halliday (1978), a content is what is implied, chosen from the aggregate arrangement of alternatives that constitute what can be implied. setting of circumstance and setting of cultureSlide 22
The Pragmatic Approach What the listener takes to be the speaker\'s significance is the importance of the expression. sentence significance and articulation meaningSlide 23
Synonymy Words or expressions with the same or comparative importance are said to be synonymous. lounge chair ←→sofa, plain ←→ residential; extensive ←→ huge ←→ tremendous ;Slide 24
However, genuine equivalent words are uncommon. By and large, equivalent words may vary in at least one of the accompanying angles: A. Distinction in starting point B. Distinction in the shades of significance C. Distinction in socio-expressive significance D. Distinction in complex importance E. Contrasts in collocation and conveyanceSlide 25
Antonymy When at least two lexemes or expressions are "opposite" in significance, they are said to be antonyms . A. Integral antonyms B. Gradable antonyms C. Social contrary energiesSlide 26
Complementary antonyms: dead - alive single - wedded male – female Gradable antonyms ： hot chilly Relational alternate extremes : spouse - husband understudy - educator father - childSlide 27
Meronymy and Hyponymy Meronymy: part-entire relationship between lexical things Hyponymy: particular general semantic relationship between lexical things.Slide 28
Polysemy and Homonymy When a solitary lexeme has a few implications, it is called polysemic. For instance, the English word chip has a few implications. It might mean "electronic circuit", "a sort of food" or "a bit of wood".Slide 29
Homonymy: lexemes with the same phonological or morphological shape have diverse implications. Homographs: words written similarly however contrast in importance and infrequently in elocution or induction also. Homophones: words with indistinguishable articulation yet with various spellings and implications.Slide 30
Intersentential Semantic Relations An entailment alludes to something that consistently takes after from what is attested in the expression. (an) I saw a kid. (b) I saw a youngster.Slide 31
Presupposition A presupposition alludes to what is expected by the speaker as well as accepted by him to be known to the listener before he or she makes the expression. Such semantic presupposition can be characterized as a truth connection. As in the accompanying illustration, in the event that somebody articulates (a), then he or she should presuppose (b); generally, what he or she expresses is only rubbish: (a) Mary\'s canine is yelping. ( p ) (b) Mary has a canine. ( q )Slide 32
Implicature The speaker may utilize an expression to suggest what he doesn\'t truly mean. implicature (a) Don\'t you believe it\'s very stuffy here? (b) Would you please open the windows to air the room?Slide 33
Componential Analysis Componential examination characterizes the significance of a lexical component as far as semantic parts or semantic elements . Every word has certain semantic components of its own.Slide 34
Tautology customarily alludes to a recommendation which is consequently valid by excellence of its importance however educationally vacant.Slide 35
Metaphor is a non-strict utilization of words and expressions in which one thing is talked about as though it were some other thing. For instance, The man is a tiger.Slide 36
End of Lecture Thank you for your consideration
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