September 9, 2009 CEC Staff Workshop SCAQMD, Precious stone Bar, CA Ron Gremban, Specialized Lead The California Autos A.

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Quickening Vehicle Zap September 9, 2009 CEC Staff Workshop SCAQMD, Precious stone Bar, CA Ron Gremban, Specialized Lead The California Autos Activity For redesigned PDF of presentations: 2008: First see of another industry
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Quickening Vehicle Electrification September 9, 2009 CEC Staff Workshop SCAQMD, Diamond Bar, CA Ron Gremban, Technical Lead The California Cars Initiative For overhauled PDF of presentations: 2008: First see of another industry Ali Emadi, Felix Kramer, Andy Grove, & Andy Frank at Plug-In 2008 in San Jose

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A brisk update: Electricity is superior to anything gas! I am going to distribute a White Paper that uses EPA, CAFÉ, and Argonne National Labs information to build up that electric/fuel ICE Energy Economy Ratios ( EERs ) are quite higher than the 3.0 that the CEC utilizes for all figurings of the estimation of electric drive: 5.2 est. ( 73% better ) for utilized light trucks prone to be contender for module transformation 4.7 ( 57% preferred for EVs over 3.0) for traveler autos meeting 2009 CAFÉ gauges 3.6 ( 20% better ) for traveler autos meeting 2020 U.S. /2016 California CAFÉ benchmarks 2.8 for the 2004-9 Prius which, at 64 mpg EPA, as of now meets 150% of 2020/2016 CAFE 1. Financial matters: CHEAPER - electric miles at a quarter the expense 2. Atmosphere: CLEANER - half less CO2, even on the half-coal national force network 3. Vitality SECURITY: DOMESTIC - Only 1.5% of U.S. power originates from oil

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Nonprofit Startup: CalCars’ triumphs & challenges In 2004, nobody trusted PHEVs were suitable, and automobile makers asserted that nobody would ever need to module an auto. CalCars: Demonstrated low-tech changes of a mass delivered crossover into a PHEV, Aggressively sought after open mindfulness, instruction, and associations with ecological, national security, innovation, and other promotion gatherings Worked to construct grassroots purchaser weight on industry and government Created an open-source innovation trade Technology (demos) Advocacy (purchasers) Progress: 2004 2006 2009

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President Obama/Congress on PHEV Policies Stimulus Package and Since $2,500-$7,500 assessment credit: 200,000 new modules from every producer 10% duty credits up to $4,000 for module transformations $2 billion propelled battery exploration Plug-in autos as approach to meet higher CAFE MPG principles $400 million for foundation arrangement, territorial organization $300 million elected buys 30% expense credits propelled assembling speculations Goal: 1 million PHEVs by 2015 Key component of Waxman-Markey a dangerous atmospheric devation arrangements bill Notice that this is not seen as an approach to EXCEED higher CAFÉ benchmarks Nov ’07 Googleplex; March ’09 SoCalEd. ’06: “When it gets to be conceivable in the coming years, we ought to verify that each administration auto is a module hybrid.” 5

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18+ carmakers intrigued; race to be initial; couple of timetables (see CalCars Carmakers page rundown) Chevy Volt: 2009 demo, 2010 generation; Opel Ampera; mixed PHEV SUV 2011 marked down 2009: little demo armada 6

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But for close & mid-term effects, retrofits are required! Source: CalCars white paper (see last slide) New modules, even at a 10x speedier rate than half breeds (21% versus 2.2% in 10 years) won’t be a huge rate of armada until 2025-2030 This new module entrance rate extrapolates from Obama’s objective of 1M by 2015, and is up to 10 years quicker than CEC’s most extreme Scenario 3 This change rate has been confined to require before however no extra battery producing limit Both may be hopeful. Regardless, retrofits can quicken sways by no less than 10 years! Note: biofuel entrance rate is a wide gauge

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But can ICE vehicles be changed over as once huge mob? At the end of the day, CalCars has started a crusade for something significant yet not yet seen as reasonable. This time, for evidence of-idea shows, we have found a few new businesses that have connected known advancements in imaginative ways. Changing over gas guzzlers - the almost half of light vehicles delegated trucks - is simplest, spares the most fuel, and is the most financially feasible. Transformations to PHEVs have the most elevated business sector claim, yet changes to BEVs are simpler can in any case fulfill numerous particular armada prerequisites. A few organizations are showing ICE-to-PHEV changes that add to, rather than supplanting, the current drivetrain, in this way profoundly decreasing expenses. Batteries are the worry and the empowering influence Volume Li-particle pack expenses are as of now protected, seemingly perpetual( (however requiring street testing), and drawing closer $600/helpful kWh in high volume, or $300 per mile of light truck electric reach so a 20-EV-mile PHEV-20 light truck’s battery would cost just $6000. Non-Li-particle sciences are feasible, as well: NiMH is develop, and propelled lead-corrosive may soon better NiMH at much lower expense; either can control PHEV-20 trucks.

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But can ICE vehicles be changed over as once huge mob (con’t)? Similarly as with new vehicles, car volume generation can lower expenses drastically The CEC Investment Plan can encourage accomplish that HEV-to-PHEV-20 transformation costs , as of now $10-14k for the Prius with only 100’s constructed, ought to reach $6k - $8k for bigger cars and $10k for light trucks - in “minimal automotive” amounts of many thousands There is an expense of making custom changes for every vehicle model and creation arrangement (a few model years), however this is as of now figured in and will first be ruined high-volume vehicles with a huge number of each out and about. Added expenses for ICE-to-PHEV transformations that hold the OEM drivetrain are constrained to The engine\'s expense/generator, its control and force hardware, its mechanical associations and mounting, and their establishment One-time R&D aptitude, time, and cost needed to idealize the as a matter of fact troublesome ICE/electric control framework We anticipate introduced costs of $10k for cars and $16k for light trucks in “minimal automotive” amounts ICE-to-BEV changes needn\'t bother with the precarious ICE/electric control arrangement of PHEV changes, however do need greater, more lavish batteries and charge of force controlling, brakes, and lodge warming/cooling. We anticipate BEV transformations to offer in “minimal automotive” volumes for $17k for cars with 50 mile EV range; $27k for 100 miles $25k for light trucks with 50 mile EV range; $40k for 100 miles

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But can ICE vehicles be changed over as a group (con’t)? Car makers, their supply chains, and their merchants could grow new income streams, expand client reliability, make green employments, and help nature, our economy, and national security - all by: Providing their clients with update ways for the items they claim, as most other cutting edge commercial ventures. PCs, advanced mobile phones, and so forth, are all upgradeable with extra and/or enhanced parts (e.g. more RAM, higher-limit circle drives, cutting edge optical drives, extra programming applications). Programming makers routinely profit offering updates than the first program. Why not treat autos, too – which stay in client hands far longer than most items, sufficiently long to wind up pitifully out of date without an update way – as an income stream all through their lifetime? Utilizing close down processing plants and laid-off specialists to produce transformation units that merchants can then acquire pay by introducing The California Air Resources Board is demonstrating, with its spearheading new benchmarks for accreditation of HEV-to-PHEV changes, that vehicle transformations can be sheltered, low-outflows, and reasonable. The CEC can help give the seed stores and worldview authenticity to make another car plan of action, move little scale ICE-to-PHEV trailblazers into volume generation and organization with vehicle makers, and dispatch another industry. The start-up change organizations up next have each created something of worth, yet have not yet discovered the subsidizing for outsider acceptance and volume generation.

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Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies, Inc. Interestingly changing over America’s most prevalent pickup truck, the Ford F-150, to a module crossover; over 15 months of testing. Up to 30 miles all-electric extent; up to 40% MPG change as a half breed (past all-electric reach). Up to 180,000 pounds of CO2 funds in 12 years; V2G ability; expanded low-speed torque for better towing. Evaluated COST IN VOLUME PRODUCTION: $15,000 OR LESS. Looking for speculation financing. World’s First Plug-in Hybrid Electric Pickup Truck, Chicago IL Founder: IIT Prof. Ali Emadi, driving force hardware master. 40 million trucks/transports in U.S; 2 million included yearly. F-150 model outline scales to F-250, 350, school and travel transports. Straightforward payback: 2-5 years.

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Rapid Electric Vehicle Technologies, Inc. Vancouver British Columbia Developing associations with Canadian merchants. All-electric and PHEVs beginning with Ford trucks and SUVs. Contracts pending with open and private armadas. Looking for speculation financing.

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Efficient Drivetrains Inc. San Francisco-Sacramento district CoFounder & CTO Prof. Andy Frank, UC Davis, creator of present day PHEV. Working with auto/truck OEMs, changes, first-level suppliers to install creative drivetrain framework plans, parts - parallel, arrangement, and retrofit advances. Patent portfolio: half breed essentials, ceaselessly variable transmissions, vitality administration frameworks. Ventures in U.S., Europe, and Asia : bike, V2.0 p

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