Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) and the reestablishment of Logic.


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Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) and the reestablishment of Reasoning. Imperative Baconian thoughts:. Dependence on the confirmation of the faculties and instruments (e.g. telescope, magnifying lens); Advancement through innovation;
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Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) and the recharging of Philosophy

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Important Baconian thoughts: Reliance on the faculties\' confirmation and instruments (e.g. telescope, magnifying instrument); Progress through innovation; Technological change of nature to make it valuable to humankind: ‘relief of man’s estate’ ( AL ); State Institutions of science: establishments, centralization, technocratic mastery (N.B. no democratization of information!)

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Bacon’s Life Son of an imperative authority in the administration of Elizabeth I and an extremely accomplished mother Studied law, turned into a counselor and entered House of Commons, lawful consultant to Elizabeth I (ruled until 1603) Attorney General and Lord Chancellor under James I (beginning 1613); constrained out of office in 1621 Bacon resigned to his bequest to compose and study Tried to persuade Elizabeth I and James I to hold onto regular reasoning as statecraft: headway of learning advances the state

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Bacon’s Major Works 1594 Essays 1605 Advancement of Learning : diagram for how to enhance learning in the domain (normal theory = statecraft) 1620 Great Instauration (or Renewal ) and Novum Organon (cf. Organon of Aristotle) New Atlantis (after death): diagram for state investigative establishments and their objectives

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Lead-up to Bacon Recall our theory that the rise of ahead of schedule present day science and logic was a long process starting with the restoration of old learning in the Renaissance and the improvement of down to earth aptitudes from the Middle Ages onwards: route, construction modeling, optics, water power, natural prescription, speculative chemistry (advances into science).

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Philosophy before Bacon: Scholastic philosophy—logic, reasoning, syllogism, medieval form of Aristotle’s material science and cosmology, toppled by Galileo and others

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“Many might go forward and backward, and information should be increased.” The boat goes between the Pillars of Hercules, conventional image of breaking points of learning Frontispiece, Great Instauration (1620) The Ship of the New Learning:

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Bacon’s Attack on Aristotle: Bacon dishonors Aristotle keeping in mind the end goal to press for his own ‘total reproduction of sciences, expressions and all human information, raised upon legitimate foundations’ (‘Pro œ mium’) “Aristotle…spoils regular theory with his dialectic” ( NO , I, lxiii). “As the sciences in their present state are pointless for the revelation of works so rationale in its present state is futile for the disclosure of sciences” (emph. included; NO , I, xi).

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General Attack on the Ancients … the insight of the Greeks was explanatory and inclined to controversy , a variety antagonistic to the quest for truth . Thus the term ‘Sophists”, which was rejected by the individuals who needed to be viewed as scholars and connected with scorn to the orators…is likewise appropriate to the entire tribe—Plato, Aristotle … and the rest” (emph. included; Bacon, NO , Bk I, LXXI).

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Ancient Exceptions Bacon did excluded some antiquated logicians, who did not discovered schools (Plato had the Academy, Aristotle the Lyceum) and discreetly went to work researching nature, “with less affectation” ( NO I, lxxi) Democritus (nuclear hypothesis) Pre-Socratics: Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus

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Bacon’s assault on Aristotle’s technique for examination: A ristotle did not hone a genuine inductive system in view of experience : - he needed “a store of things adequately huge to detail genuine axioms” (Bacon, Outline of a characteristic and trial history , 224); - “…no one ought to be inspired in light of the fact that in Aristotle’s books On Animals and in his Problems and different treatises there is regularly discourse of analyses . He had truth be told decided in advance , and did not appropriately counsel experience …” (emph. included; NO , Bk I, LXIII).

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Breakdown of Bacon’s assault Aristotle’s deformities demonstrate the way to take after: True system Examine an uncertainly expansive number of cases (‘store of things’) Using Induction [WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?] Using tests, instruments Employing no pre-judgment, i.e. not hypothesis or speculation driven (amazing definition adjusted by and by) True objective: not contentions (academic), but rather expressions , i.e. the craft of changing nature for the utilization of man

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The strategy for Bacon’s new operational common rationality: Induction amends Aristotle’s mistake of “…premature human thinking, which suspects request, and is dreamy from the truths carelessly and sooner than is fit…” (emph. included; GI, 17 ). “The workmanship which I introduce…is a sort of rationale , however the distinction in the middle of it and the standard rationale is incredible, without a doubt huge ” (emph. included; GI, 21).

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Defects of Syllogism “The syllogism comprises of recommendations; suggestions of words, and words are the tokens and indications of ideas. Presently if the very thoughts of the mind…be despicably and overhastily dreamy from truths, obscure, not adequately definite…the entire structure tumbles. I in this manner reject the syllogism…not just as respects standards, additionally as respects center recommendations; which…are infertile of works ” (emph. included; GI, 21-2). “…logicians obtain the standards of every science from the science itself; besides, they hold in veneration the first ideas of the mind…” ( GI, 22).

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Role of Sense-information: - “I perform the workplace of a genuine cleric of the sense (from which all learning in nature must be sought…)” ( GI , 24) - We may not utilize our faculties well: “observation [can be] reckless, unpredictable and drove by chance” ( GI , 26). - “…but then in the meantime [the senses] supply the method for finding their own particular errors” ( GI , 24).

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Obstacles to utilizing the Senses Idols of the tribe (all people): we -think nature is more methodical than it really is, and presuppose request where it is not to be discovered “…the universe to the human\'s eye comprehension is surrounded like a maze; displaying as it does on each side such a large number of ambiguities of way, such misleading similarities of items and signs, natures so sporadic in their lines, thus tied and entangled” ( GI , 13). Bacon thus addresses a supposition viewed self as clear for a considerable length of time by characteristic rationalists and scholars.

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Obstacles and Idols, cont. Symbols of the tribe, cont . - decline to acknowledge potential truth of counter-cases (e.g curved circles, heliocentrism) -extrapolate from a couple cases (Aristotle) -depend on reflections -accept to be genuine what we need to be genuine - Idols of the hollow (specific attitude of every individual): being a grouper or splitter, enjoying old things or new ones, inclining toward structure or matter; - Idols of the commercial center( (insufficiencies of dialect): numerous names for things; imaginary names.

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Aids to the faculties: “Neither the exposed hand nor the unaided brains has much power; the work is finished by tools…” [cf. academic logic] ( NO , I, ii). - Navigation: attractive compass - Medicine: natural, synthetic (Paracelsians), life systems - Optics, e.g. telescopes, magnifying lens - Alchemy (precursor of science): lab system, mechanical assembly (also has change of nature as its objective ) - Hydraulics: utilization of water force, e.g. water wheels, canal development, redirections

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Goal of the new philosophy—the victory of nature: “…the end which this science…proposes…is the innovation not of contentions [ cf. the scholastics] however of expressions …”. [which ones?] “a history [i.e. description]…of nature under requirement and vexed…when by workmanship and the hand of man she is constrained out of her normal state, and pressed and formed ” ( GI , 28; emph. included). “The End of our Foundation [Salomon’s House] is the Knowledge of Causes, and mystery movements of things; and the limits\' extending of Human Empire, to the effecting for goodness\' sake possible” (emph. included; NA , 71). [what is possible?]

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Bacon and Christianity Bacon’s expansion of man’s dominion—does it usurp the part of God the Creator, or basically restore man’s territory over nature, lost at the Fall (Genesis 1-3)? - rebuilding of the “commerce between the brain of man and the way of things…to its ideal and unique condition” (Pro œ mium) - ”confine the sense w/n the farthest point of things divine”, yet abstain from speculation “the investigation [investigation] of nature is…interdicted or forbidden” ( GI , 16) - ”true closures of knowledge”: “benefit and utilization of life” (a work of philanthropy, boss Christian goodness) ( GI , 16)

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Institutions of the new operational regular rationality “…in the behavior and traditions of the schools, colleges, un