Six Sigma .


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Six Sigma . Six Sigma Revolution. Deming’s teaching about quality Quality initiatives: SPC, Just-in-time, TQM Motorola in 1980’s GE and AlliedSignal in 1990’s Radical Changes in products and services Companies:
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Six Sigma

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Six Sigma Revolution Deming\'s instructing about Quality activities: SPC, Just-in-time, TQM Motorola in 1980\'s GE and AlliedSignal in 1990\'s Radical Changes in items and administrations Companies: TI, ABB, DuPont, Ford, Dow Chemical, Johnson Controls, BASF, American Express, Nokia, Toshiba,

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What is Six Sigma? Vision Philosophy Company Strategy Method Culture Tool

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The Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) Warranty Inspection Tangible Quality Costs Rework Rejects Scrap Lost deals Lost Opportunities Late conveyance Hidden Factory More Setups Expediting costs Engineering change orders Lost Customer Loyalty Excess stock Long process durations

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x x The Nature of the Process On-target, less variety Variation Off-Target Six Sigma objective distinguishes and controls prepare varieties and targets. Six Sigma philosophy distinguishes forms that are off-target,

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What is Six Sigma? Coordinates Customer center Breakthrough change Continuous change People Involvement Defines objectives and execution measurements that yield clear and quantifiable business comes about. Applies measurable devices to accomplish leap forward monetary benefits

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Six Sigma Focus Meeting client needs Rapid achievement change Process ability and change Positive and profound culture change Real budgetary results that effect the primary concern

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Structure/Roles

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Building the 6  Team Executive Management: Set significant objectives and push usage of six sigma in the association Champion: Create general extension and set key course of the activities and groups Drive extend accomplishment by evacuating hindrances and dispensing adequate assets Master Black Belt Consults, prepares and coaches the nearby association on Six Sigma Black Belt: Delivers fruitful undertakings (high corporate additions) utilizing the Breakthrough Strategy Green Belt: Delivers neighborhood ventures (bring down fiscal increases) utilizing the Breakthrough Strategy Other key individuals: Process Owner: keeps up framework upgrades at venture finish Process Sponsor: gives assets, time, cash and heading of your venture Financial Analyst: checks the monetary profits of the venture Team individuals : actualize the means for six sigma achievement

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What is Sigma? s (sigma ) - A Greek letter In insights - the "standard" deviation from the normal/mean Assumption of Gaussian/Normal conveyance Six Sigma Methodology utilizes s to characterize the ability of a procedure As the standard deviation of your procedure diminishes, the "sigma level" of your procedure increments.

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Normal/Gaussian Distribution 34.13% 13.06% 2.14% 0.13% - 3 s - 2s - 1s m 1s 2s 3s 68.26% 95.46% 99.73% 68.26% of the populace is inside +/ - 1 of the ?? ?

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Process Capability 6 s process is to get adequate results through : Identification of varieties Quantification of varieties Elimination/control of varieties USL LSL Defects Acceptable

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Six Sigma - Goal s Defects per Million Opp. 1 691,462 308,537 2 66,807 3 6,210 4 233 5 3.4 6

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Six Sigma - Practical Meaning 99% Good (3.8 Sigma) 99.99966% Good (6 Sigma) 16,000 lost articles of mail every hour 5.4 articles lost for every hour 22,000 checks deducted from the wrong financial balance every hour 7.5 checks deducted from the wrong ledger every hour 500 off base surgical operations every week 1.7 off base operations for each week 2 risky plane arrivals for every day at O\'Hare International Airport in Chicago 1 hazardous plane getting like clockwork 50 infants dropped during childbirth by specialists every day 1 infant dropped during childbirth by specialists at regular intervals ** Source: Six Sigma Revolution , George Eckes

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Overall Approach Define Problem Measure Practical Problem Analyze Statistical Problem Statistical Solution Improve Control Practical Solution

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The Strategy USL LSL Characterize Optimize Breakthrough T USL LSL T USL LSL T LSL\' USL\'

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The 6 Sigma Breakthrough Method Define venture and degree Establish handle D Define Identify key info/yields factors Identify prepare ability/estimation framework M Characterization Measure 5 Establish Product Capability 6 Identify Variation Sources An Analyze 7 Screen Potential Causes 8 Verify Variable Relationships I Improve Optimization 9 Validate Measurement System 10 Implement Process Controls C Control

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Defining the Process Team individuals who comprehend the procedure Put together a stream of the procedure A basic establishment for group action Identification of yields for estimation and capacity examines Estimates of sigma levels at every progression

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Project Scope Problem explanation Goals/targets for the group Measurable additions (fiscal terms) Milestone Customer needs and necessities

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Process Mapping What is process mapping? Graphical portrayal of the ACTUAL procedure What will the device recognize? All esteem included and non-esteem included process steps Process sources of info (X\'s) Process or item yields (Y\'s) Data gathering focuses

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Basic Flowchart Symbols Activity Start/Stop Flow Line Decision Point A Connector A

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Basic Structure What are the means to catch? What are the operational strides? What are the choice focuses? Where are the issue territory?

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Versions of a Process What You Think It Is... What It Actually Is... What You Would Like It To Be ...

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Preparing the Process Flowchart Team Effort Engineers Line Operators Line Supervisors Maintenance Technicians Inputs to Flowcharts Brainstorming Operator Manuals (SOP\'s, AOP\'s, and so forth.) Engineering Specifications Operator Experience 5M\'s and an E (Fishbone) Machine (Equipment), Method (Procedures), Measurement, Materials, Manpower (People), Environment

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Measurement Phase The information/yield factors The capacity of the procedure The imperfections in the process Sigma level

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Purpose of Measurement Phase Identify and characterize deserts Identify key info factors (X\'s) and key yield factors (Y\'s) Document the current procedure Establish an information accumulation framework for your X\'s and Y\'s whether one doesn\'t exist Evaluate estimation framework for every key yield variable utilizing C&E, FMEA, and so on

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control The Importance of Defects Since Six-Sigma concentrates on decreasing deformities, it is essential that every venture definition obviously indicates the defect(s) that will be diminished Count the quantity of times the letter f shows up in the accompanying proclamation: Six Sigma Revolution , George Eckes, pg 2

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control A basic test 13 What was your reply? The f inal in f ormation are the outcomes o f years o f scienti f ic ponders and were o f ten joined with years o f encounter. We should o f ten con f igure the f iles f or the f inal report amid the con f erence.

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control What Causes Defects? Variety because of: Manufacturing procedures Supplier (approaching) material variety Unreasonably tight determinations (past client needs) Unstable Parts and Materials Inadequate preparing Inadequate Design Margin Insufficient Process Capability

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control How Do We Improve Capability Understand that the Outputs (Y\'s) are dictated by Inputs (X\'s). On the off chance that we know enough about our X\'s we can precisely anticipate Y without measuring it. In the event that we don\'t know much about our X\'s, then we need to depend on examination and test. On the off chance that can control the X\'s, then we lessen the changeability in Y, which diminishes surrenders, and potentially, kills/decreases examination and test. Y = F (x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ,… x n )

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Data Collection Plan Six Sigma Revolution , George Eckes, pg 72

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Data Collection Data Type of Data Discrete Continuous Sampling Representative Random Sampling

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Metrics: What to gauge? Absconds per million open doors (DPMO) drives all inclusive change Sigma level takes into account benchmarking inside and crosswise over organizations

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Calculating Sigma-Level Sigma level units: thing delivered or being adjusted deformity: occasion that does not meet the client\'s prerequisite open door: chance for an imperfection to happen Calculate Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO): surrenders x 1,000,000 Total # DPMO = (# of Opportunities for Error) x (# of units) Go to a Sigma Chart and Estimate the Sigma Level Six Sigma Revolution , George Eckes, pg 99

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control DPMO and Sigma Level

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Tracking Trends in Metrics Our goal is to track the patterns in the Metrics to build up, in view of truth, our upgrades. These measurements can be efficiency, surrenders, time, yield, and so forth

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Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Purpose of the Analysis Phase Establish standard ability for key yield factors (potential and in general) Examine both the procedure and information for investigation Determine and approve the root causation of venture issue To diminish the quantity of process information factors (x\'s) to a sensible number To decide the nearness of and

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