Outline Recognition for Digital Circuit Diagrams in the Classroom Christine Alvarado Harvey Mudd College March 26, 2007 Joint work with the HMC Sketchers amass: Aaron Wolin , Ned Burns , Jason Fennell, Max Pfleuger, Devin Smith, Paul Wais, Howard Chen, Matt Weiner, Prof. Sarah HarrisSlide 2
Sketching In Education Digital Circuit DesignSlide 3
Educational Technologies "Most of the time the lab was more about fighting Xilinx than really learning anything useful" –HMC, E85 understudySlide 4
Problem: Design a 1-bit full snakeSlide 5
Correct! Also, 2 OR-2 AND-2 XOR-2 XOR-2Slide 6
Goals Build an outline based circuit reproduction instrument that: is sufficiently powerful for genuine utilize permits understudies to portray as uninhibitedly as could reasonably be expected is less demanding to use than current programming We require: An incorporated circuit recreation framework Improved free-outline acknowledgment calculations A comprehension of UI issuesSlide 7
Integrated System Overview Front End hand-drawn portray Circuit Recognition and Translation Verilog record Simulation (Xilinx)Slide 8
Integrated System Overview Front End User Interface Design hand-drawn draw Recognize Symbols Free-outline Recognition Construct Circuit Diagram Parsing Translate to Verilog document Simulation (Xilinx)Slide 9
Sketch Recognition Subtasks Stroke Fragmentation NOR Symbol Recognition Stroke GroupingSlide 10
A Typical Approach to Recognition Stroke Fragmentation Stroke Grouping Symbol RecognitionSlide 11
A Typical Approach to Recognition: Problem erroneous gatheringSlide 12
Why is Grouping Hard? No unmistakable limits in space…Slide 13
Why is Grouping Hard? No unmistakable limits in space or timeSlide 14
A Typical Approach to Recognition: Problem ??? Stroke Grouping is impossible without acknowledgment (But acknowledgment is impossible without stroke gathering)Slide 15
Our Approach Stroke Fragmentation Single-Stroke Recognition Stroke Grouping Symbol RecognitionSlide 16
Our Approach Stroke Fragmentation Single-Stroke Recognition Stroke Grouping Symbol RecognitionSlide 17
Single-Stroke Recognition Goal: Label every stroke as WIRE, GATE or SIGNAL Method: Conditional Random Field Approach in view of Yuan Qi, Martin Szummer, Thomas P. Minka. Chart Structure Recognition by Bayesian Conditional Random Fields June 2005 Proc Comp. Vision Pattern Recogn. (CVPR) C. Schmid and S. Soatto and C. Tomasi 191- - 196 entryway door wire entryway flag wire entryway wireSlide 18
Conditional Random Field (CRF) Determines P( y | x ) y : vector of names ( wire or door ), one for every section (stroke) x : set of all perceptions (stroke highlights)Slide 19
Single-Stroke Classification DemoSlide 20
Training the CRF: Data Collection and LabelingSlide 21
Data Collection Goal: Free outlining in building instruction Method: Distributed Tablet Computers to ~35 understudies in HMC E85 (advanced circuit plan) and E84 (simple circuit plan) Collected portrayals from notes, homeworks, and labs But shouldn\'t something be said about marking?Slide 22
Labeling Tasks Stroke Fragmentation Stroke Grouping and LabelingSlide 23
Labeler DemoSlide 24
Designing the UI User Study to look at: Recognition Triggers (catch, motion, delay) Feedback components (shading, image, content) Error Rates and Types Preliminary Results Users favor dynamic acknowledgment Trigger must be solid Users infrequently trigger acknowledgmentSlide 25
(Some Immediate) Future Work Stroke Fragmentation Single-Stroke Recognition Stroke Grouping Symbol Recognition Multi-class acknowledgment wire versus entryway versus flagSlide 26
Conclusion Single-stroke acknowledgment Improved gathering + acknowledgment Direct control marking more entire datasets Robust free-outline acknowledgment bring down boundaries to learningSlide 27
Extra SlidesSlide 28
Nodes for each stroke (part)Slide 29
Edges between related sectionsSlide 30
Example of a name setSlide 31
CRF Probability Distribution The likelihood of an arrangement of names given information Want to amplify P(y|x) Normalizing term Local similarity with names Compatibility in light of setting Normalize by whole over all conceivable name sets. Awful term Need guess to make this computationally doableSlide 32
Feature capacities CRF can\'t utilize crude stroke information Feature capacities separate helpful numerical information Vector of information extricated for every hub and match of contiguous hubs P( y | x ) What are these perceptions?Slide 33
Parameters Relative handiness of elements for characterization should be represented Parameters go about as weights for individual components Weighted elements consolidated with an aggregate Represented with a dab itemSlide 34
Site Potentials Measure similarity amongst marks and a hub The exponential makes the math more pleasant All possibilities joined with an item highlight work weight vector Site PotentialSlide 35
Interaction Potentials Where the CRF gets its energy Uses setting by measuring similarity between sets of nearby hubs and sets of names Mathematically, same story as site possibilities include work weight vector Interaction PotentialSlide 36
What does a CRF require? Assemble information on the portray and individual strokes ( include capacities ) Determine weights ( preparing ) Maximize P( y | x ) in a computationally plausible manner ( deduction ) Not going to discuss thisSlide 37
Feature Functions Can\'t pass stroke information straightforwardly into the CRF Feature capacities make an interpretation of crude stroke information into basic direct values that the CRF can follow up on We required returned qualities to be in the scope of [-1, 1] in principle different extents work, however we had issues with themSlide 38
Mathematical Limitations The CRF must react straightly to the qualities returned by highlight works This can be dangerous if the returned esteem has physical significance, similar to the length of a stroke To manage highlights like length we made a few distinct components for whether the length was inside a specific rangeSlide 39
Site Feature: Turning Calculates the aggregate amount of pivot in a stroke After ascertaining the estimation of Turning, we returned four unique qualities for various areas To see why we have to do this, consider the red, blue, and green strokes underneathSlide 40
Interaction Feature: T-Junction Detects whether two strokes are arranged in a T-Junction with each other Might happen where a wire meets a door Note that this capacity is non-symmetric We need to separate the cross from the stem of a T-Junction We utilize two indistinguishable adaptations of this capacity with the contentions switchedSlide 41
Parameters regardless we require a rundown of weights or parameters relating each site highlight to each name, and each cooperation highlight to each combine of marks Must take in parameters from named informationSlide 42
Likelihood work The probability capacity is a representation of how well a given arrangement of parameters orders a given information set We really utilize (- log(likelihood)) to make the math less difficult Training permits us to discoverSlide 43
Training: Idea How would we be able to minimize ? Take the subsidiary and set it to 0? Condition is excessively muddled Gradient plunge: Locally take after the inclination down to the most minimal point (ideally!) [evaluated on preparing data] [w,v] ideal parametersSlide 44
Future Work More/better element capacities Computational issues Numerical under-and flood Multi-Pass CRFs Find Gates and Wires Train the CRF again on the doors, recognizing the sort of entryway Circuit understanding, interface with Xilinx
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