Slave Trade, Plantation Life and the Presence of African Languages in the Caribbean Nicole ScottSlide 2
Questions What are the vital districts of inception of Africans in the Caribbean? What are the social and etymological ramifications of the diverse districts of birthplace?Slide 3
Questions cont\'d What are the social settings of African dialect survival in the Caribbean? What are the elements which added to the development of Creole dialects in most, yet not all Caribbean social orders?Slide 4
References Eltis, David & David Richardson (1997) \'West Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade: New Evidence of Long-run Trends\' in Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity, and Mortality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade . David Eltis & David Richardson (eds.) London: Frank Cass, 16-35. [2 O/S; 1WIC]Slide 5
References cont\'d Thornton, John (2000) \'The Birth of a Atlantic World\' in Caribbean Slavery in the Atlantic Word: A Student Reader. Verene Shepherd and Hilary McD Beckles (eds.) Kingston: Ian Randale Publishers, 55-73. Initially distributed in Thornton, John (1992) in Africa and Africans really taking shape of the Atlantic World 1400-1680 Cambridge: CUP, 13- 42. [6 RBC]Slide 6
Preliminaries The ascent of estate – moved from the development of yields like ginger, cotton, tobacco to the work serious sugar. Lack of work. The need work unrewarded to expand benefits for ranch proprietors.Slide 7
Preliminaries The supply of a wellspring of work pressured and free. Progressively a dependence on African servitude. Portuguese exchanging slaves from as right on time as 1479 Spanish began in 1503Slide 8
Preliminaries Dutch began in 1630\'s. English and French began in the 1640\'s. Exchanging was for the most part done by private exchanging organizations (along the West Coast). For e.g. Regal African Company\'s exchanging post was set up in cutting edge Ghana at Elmina.Slide 9
Preliminaries Slaves were: - Prisoners of war Criminal guilty parties Debtors AbducteesSlide 10
Principal Regions of African Origin West Africa range limited by Senegal River in the North to contemporary Angola in the South Includes nations, for example, Senegambia (Senegal and Gambia), Sierra Leone, Windward Coast, Gold Coast, Bight of Benin, Bight of Biafra, West Central Africa.Slide 11
Map of West AfricaSlide 12
Note Historians don\'t have every one of the answers however the trust is that in this course we will be capable survey examples of social and etymological maintenance and adjustment. The thought is for us to comprehend the courses in which Africans molded the Atlantic world through horticultural advancements, conviction frameworks and social practices. Dialect is critical to every one of these zones.Slide 13
Principal Regions of Origin Senegambia Modern Senegal and Gambia Largely overwhelmed by the French after the 1600\'s. Bunches originated from inland regions (around upper Niger River).Slide 14
Principal Regions of Origin – Senegambia cont\'d Groups talked for the most part Bambara, Wolof Mandingo slave dealers conveyed them down to ports and stations Slaves from inside favored as they were less inclined to attempt to get awaySlide 15
Principal Regions of Origin –Senegambia cont\'d General etymological classification – Mande Very heterogeneous Mostly Muslims and AnimistsSlide 16
Principal Regions of Origin Windward Coast Trade along this part of the drift was indiscriminate The overwhelming dialects in the zone are those of the Kru amass.Slide 17
Principal Region of Origin Gold Coast Modern day Ghana Trading post commanded by Royal African Company. The biggest exchanging post was Elmina Dutch ousted the Portuguese in 1642. Lexical things of Portuguese starting point get by in dialects talked there.Slide 18
Principal Region of Origin—Gold Coast cont\'d Main dialect bunches –Ashanti, Fante, Agni (all subsumed under the name Akan) Enslaved Africans from this range would will probably shape an ethno etymological gathering.Slide 19
Principal Region of Origin Slave Coast Area especially vital in early slave exchange, particularly 1700\'s Area overwhelmed by French by 1730\'s Africans sold to for the most part British and French brokers.Slide 20
Principal Regions of Origin – Slave Coast cont\'d Language bunches—Ewe, Ga (subsumed under Kwa) Dominance of this zone in Atlantic Slave Trade disappeared in 1790 A generally homogeneous culture (the Ewe) – the principle assortment of which is Fon however the dialects are firmly identified with Akan dialects in Morpho-syntactic structure.Slide 21
Principal Regions of Origin Bight of Biafra Bight of Benin Collectively shape the Niger Delta range Modern day Benin and SE bank of Nigeria separately. Principle dialects –Yoruba, Ijo, Ibo, Efik - Kwa dialects (to a lesser degree Hausa, Fulani – West Atlantic dialect)Slide 22
Principal Regions of Origin –Biafra and Benin cont\'d Area overwhelmed by the Yoruba in 17 th Century Le Page contends this is a territory of reasonable etymological assorted qualities Area turned out to be more critical in the last part of the slave exchange.Slide 23
Principal Regions of Origin West Central Africa Modern day Cameroon Main dialect—Kongo Mostly Bantu dialects. There are no less than 300 Bantu dialects (covering a significant part of the landmass from Cameroon in the west to the tip of South Africa). Angola Became critical to the Caribbean in the last some portion of exchanging.Slide 24
Principal Regions of African Origin—Languages By even moderate assessments, there are more than 800 particular dialects in Africa. The biggest, most far-flung family is Niger-Kordofanian. Kordofanian incorporates pockets of minimal considered dialects in Sudan Niger-Congo incorporates all the West African Coastal Languages and also the Bantu subgroup.Slide 25
Niger Congo Language Family Niger Congo Bantu Kwa Mande W/Atlantic Kikongo Akan(Twi) Mandingo Wolof Luba Anyi Bambara Serer Lingala Ewe Mande Fulani Kimbundu Yoruba Ibo GaSlide 26
Principal Region of Origin West Africa is the most crowded zone and it additionally has the most dialects. Nigeria alone is assessed to have more than 300 dialectsSlide 27
Regions of Origin cont\'d The Transatlantic Slave Trade – biggest long separation constrained relocation ever. As it identifies with the Caribbean, three locales overwhelmed. The Gold Coast The Bight of Benin The Bight of BiafraSlide 28
Regions of beginning cont\'d These territories have a tendency to be viewed as the focal point of gravity of movement from West Africa as well as from the entire Sub-Saharan Africa. These ranges had the biggest populace densities on the sub mainland.Slide 29
Regions of Origin cont\'d Greatest urban advancement. Most modern state structures (Gold Coast and Bight of Benin) Reasonably restrictive ethno-semantic homogeneity inside their hinterlands.Slide 30
Regions of Origin cont\'d Portuguese situated in Brazil commanded exchange the Bight of Benin British were overwhelming in Gold drift and Bight of Biafra Dutch – second biggest number of voyages to the Gold Coast.Slide 31
Regions of Origin cont\'d French – second biggest gathering in Bight of Biafra After 1808 Cuban based Spanish slave dealers turned into the biggest gathering in the Bight of Biafra.Slide 32
A Look at the Gold Coast The example of West African entry in the Americas was a long way from arbitrary. The real single goal of Gold Coast slaves was Jamaica – 36% of the landings. Numerous however went to different parts of British AmericasSlide 33
Gold Coast cont\'d 66% of all slaves leaving the Gold Coast went to the English talking new world. Barbados – significant 17 th penny. goal Jamaica – overwhelmed the 18 th penny.Slide 34
Gold Coast cont\'d Akan social conspicuousness in Jamaica (Ahanta, Fanti, Akim and Asante people groups among others) is very much noted in the slave exchange. Spanish America – second most critical goal for Gold Coast slaves after JamaicaSlide 35
Cont\'d Most from Bight of Benin went to Brazil (6/10) French Americas (2/10) British Caribbean (1/10)Slide 36
Gold Coast Languages Kwa Akan - (Akwapem, Akim, Asante,Fante) Anyi Ewe Yoruba Ibo Ga (to give some examples were talked from the Ivory Coast to Nigeria)Slide 37
Cultural and Linguistic Implications of Regional Differentiation The oppressed individuals were a heterogeneous gathering. Could semantic strength have been built up despite heterogeneity?Slide 38
Cultural and Linguistic Implications of Regional Differentiation The general population were not homogenous as far as country but rather would they say they were socially and/or semantically homogenous?Slide 39
Culturally Homogeneous Areas Gold Coast Akan (Twi) Slave Coast Ewe (Fon) Niger Delta Yoruba until 17 th C.Slide 40
Linguistic Homogeneity Niger-Congo Languages have regular elements: - Morpho-Syntax Copula, Serial Verbs, Negative accord, Isolating, Predicate Adjectives, Plurals, Reduplication.Slide 41
Linguistic Homogeneity cont\'d Phonology Open syllables, particularly the restraint of consonant groups for e.g. JC wa "what," simit "smith" Tone dialects PalatalizationSlide 42
Linguistic Homogeneity Lexicon/Semantics Calques Loan words Semantic field (wood can allude to numerous things in JC and so forth.)Slide 43
Cultural and Linguistic Implications of Different ranges of Origin Cultural - Upon touching base in the Caribbean they would even now be foes. Nullified numerous endeavors to beat oppressors by uniting. Etymological – a few dialects were more firmly related than othersSlide 44
Linguistic ramifications of various districts of beginning There could have been Lingua Franca at the exchanging posts. Pidgin on Middle PassageSlide 45
Social Context of African Language Survival in the Caribbean Retentions (full sentences) discovered for the most part in the African customs/religious practices. In Jamaica for instance the Maroons use(d) Kromanti to
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