State of mind Disorders .

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Mood Disorders. Bipolar Disorders Depressive Disorders. Episodes and Patterns. Major depressive episode Manic episode Mixed episode Hypomanic episode Cycling patterns. Major depressive episode.
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Temperament Disorders Bipolar Disorders Depressive Disorders

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Episodes and Patterns Major depressive scene Manic scene Mixed scene Hypomanic scene Cycling designs

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Major depressive scene Five or a greater amount of the accompanying, a large portion of the day and/or almost consistently, including in any event manifestation 1 or 2: 1. Discouraged state of mind Sad, void, teary; peevish, irate 2. Loss of interest or delight in beforehand pleasant exercises 3. Change in weight or craving 4. Rest changes

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More depressive side effects 5. Recognizable change in development 6. Weariness 7. Sentiments of uselessness or blame 8. Debilitated cognizance or volition 9. Rehashed considerations of death or suicide, or arranged or endeavored suicide The five side effects must happen in the same two weeks

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Manic scene One week of relentlessly high, far reaching, or bad tempered disposition, and 3 of: Grandiose self-regard Lower rest require Overly garrulous Racing musings Easily diverted Increased movement or unsettling High hazard exercises

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Mixed scene One week of both hyper and real depressive manifestations with quickly substituting mind-sets Common indications: Agitation Insomnia Irregular hunger (fling quick) Delusions Thoughts of suicide

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Hypomanic scene Four days of hyper scene side effects Mood aggravation does not basically weaken capacity to work or keep up social obligations Response example is unique Not euthymia

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Bipolar issue Bipolar I Disorder One or more hyper or blended scenes Usually one or more real depressive scenes Subcategorized in view of the character of the latest scene Most late scene discouraged Most late scene hyper Most late scene blended

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Bipolar issue… Bipolar II Disorder One or more significant depressive scenes One or more hypomanic scenes NO hyper or blended scene Cyclothymic Disorder Two years of exchanging hypomanic and depressive side effects No reduction of over two months NO real depressive, hyper, or blended scenes

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Depressive issue No history of hyper, hypomanic, or blended scenes Major Depressive Disorder Current real depressive scene Dysthymic Disorder Two years of incessantly discouraged state of mind Two extra dejection side effects (craving, rest, vitality, fixation, low self-regard, sad sentiments)

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Patterns of temperament issue Manic Hypo-hyper De-squeezed Identify scenes: Manic Mixed Weeks Hypomanic Major Depressive

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More examples... Hyper Hypo-hyper De-squeezed

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Depressive Disorders NOS Premenstrual dysphoric issue Minor depressive issue Fewer than five indications Recurrent brief depressive issue Monthly scenes enduring <2 weeks Postpsychotic depressive issue of Schizophrenia Residual stage marvel

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Mood Disorder Specifiers These specifiers might be connected to mind-set issue analyze, where suitable: Mild/moderate/serious w/o maniacal components With:psychotic/mental/melancholic/atypical elements (m-more established, a-more youthful) going away/interminable/occasional example With baby blues onset Rapid cycling for Bipolar I or II Disorder

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Etiology of inclination issue Psychoanalytic hypothesis: Evaluation of encounters Cognitive speculations: Thought designs Interpersonal hypothesis: Rejection Biological hypotheses: Genes and NTs Existential hypothesis: Loss of importance

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Psychoanalytic hypothesis Oral obsession: Depends on others for self-regard Bereavement, introjection, and grieving work Symbolic misfortune But dream subjects of discouraged patients are of misfortune and disappointment, not outrage and antagonistic vibe (Beck and Ward, 1961) Depressed individuals do express outrage

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Cognitive speculations Beck\'s hypothesis: Character of cynicism (NegativeTriad) Habits of cynicism (Negative patterns) Erroneous considering (Characteristic predispositions) DEPRESSION

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Characteristic predispositions Arbitrary surmising Selective reflection Overgeneralization Magnification and minimization

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Assessment of Beck\'s hypothesis Depressed individuals do demonstrate intellectual predispositions in their reasoning Their obvious negativity, be that as it may, is precise The hypothesis is correlational, not causal The model is multidimensional Treatment in view of the hypothesis is useful

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Helplessness/misery speculations Learned defenselessness (Seligman & Maier, 1967) Attributional reformulation (Abramson, Seligman & Teasdale, 1978) Personal/Environmental (a.k.a. Inward/External) Stable/Unstable Global/Specific Hopelessness: Add diatheses of low self-regard and misery

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Interpersonal hypothesis Reduced interpersonal bolster Experiences of dismissal Due to social structure Inadequate informal communities Others may detest them Elicited by patient Consequences of behavioral decisions Critical remarks by mate Poor social aptitudes and looking for consolation

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Behavioral speculations Learned vulnerability/sadness is a behavioral hypothesis with an intellectual turn. Lessening in support prompts a diminishment in movement. Depressive practices are fortified. Discouraged individuals have participated in less charming occasions.

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Availability of reinforcers The measure of fortification accessible is a component of Personal attributes Environment or milieu Repertoire of support creating practices.

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Biological speculations Genetics: Bipolar MZ concordance = 43% to 72% Bipolar DZ concordance = 6% to 25% Unipolar MZ concordance = 46% Unipolar DZ concordance = 20% Linkage investigation: Mixed results Multiple qualities? Chromosomes 13 and 22

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Brain science speculations Serotonin and norepinephrine Drug medications: Tricyclics, MAOIs, and SSRIs But the time course doesn\'t coordinate Current theory: Antidepressant drugs change the thickness or affectability of postsynaptic serotonin receptors

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Brain structure hypotheses For Major Depressive Disorder just Subgenual Cingulate Region (Mayberg, 2005):Deep cerebrum incitement Ventral Anterior Capsule, white matter interfacing prefrontal cortex to thalamus, has been hindered in treatment for OCD, with the perception that it influenced inclination too.

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Neuroendocrine hypothesis Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical pivot High levels of cortisol relate with gloom Dexamethasone Suppression Test recognizes real depressive scenes

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Existential hypothesis Frankl and the quest for significance An otherworldly approach: Logotherapy Suffering has meaning: What is it? Turning around defenselessness?

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