Substance Hydride Based PEM Energy components for Convenient Force Applications.

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We are designers of hydrogen vitality frameworks for utilization fundamentally in compact gadgets for shopper, military, restorative, and mechanical markets. ...
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Shailesh A. Shah Marketing Director, Military Joint Services Power Expo May 2-5, 2005 Chemical Hydride Based PEM Fuel Cells for Portable Power Applications Millennium Cell, Inc. One Industrial Way West, Eatontown, NJ 07724 732-544-5739

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Outline Millennium Cell (MCEL) – organization review Hydrogen stockpiling/era through sodium borohydride Hydrogen on Demand® Technology Gravimetric Energy Density Comparison Prototype Development P1 Cartridge Test Results

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Millennium Cell Company Overview We are engineers of hydrogen vitality frameworks for use essentially in versatile gadgets for shopper, military, restorative, and mechanical markets. 25 licenses issued to date Over 40 patent applications submitted and as yet pending Public offering in August 2000 (Nasdaq: MCEL), presently 40 individuals working in Eatontown, NJ and Washington DC. 23 in specialized association; 9 Ph.D.s far reaching Announced connections:

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Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride (SBH) Hydrogen on Demand® Reaction NaBH 4 (aq) + 2 H 2 O  4 H 2 + NaBO 2 (aq) + heat feline A vitality thick water-based substance hydride fuel Proprietary impetus instigates fast H 2 creation High immaculateness humidified H 2 Borate can be reused into NaBH 4 or can be discarded Exothermic response requires no warmth info Hydrogen is produced in a controllable, heat-discharging response Fuel is a surrounding weight, room-temperature, non-combustible fluid Hydrogen produced by means of this procedure is of high virtue (no carbon monoxide or sulfur) and is humidified (heat creates some water vapor) U.S. Patent 6,534,033: "Framework for Hydrogen Generation"

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Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride (NaBH 4 ) Schematic of Hydrogen on Demand® Technology 1. Borohydride Fuel is pumped or moved from a tank through a chamber containing MCEL\'s exclusive impetus. 2. The fuel is changed over into unadulterated hydrogen, water vapor, and borate (NaBO 2 ). 3. The temperature and mugginess of the hydrogen stream are customizable. Humidified hydrogen is sent to the power device. 4. The energy component makes power and water . This water can be reused inside the framework. Takes into consideration higher fuel focuses. Gas/Liquid Separator Fuel Pump Catalyst Reactor Hydrogen + Water Vapor Fuel tank: NaBH 4 arrangement H 2 Discharged fuel zone: NaBO 2 Water from Fuel Cell Borate (NaBO 2 ) borate H 2 O Hydrogen + Water Vapor Coolant Loop (discretionary) Fuel Cell Pure Humidified H 2 Heat Exchanger Electric Power Oxygen from Air

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Gravimetric Energy Density Comparison Zn/Air, today 300 Wh/kg Li/SO 2 , today 170 Wh/kg Li-Ion, today 110 Wh/kg DMFC fuel just, today (15%) 900 Wh/kg fuel just, anticipated (25%) 1500 Wh/kg RMFC (0.7 V power device, 75% transformation) fuel just (64%), anticipated 1440 Wh/kg HOD/PEM (0.7 V energy component, 95% transformation) Practical dry fuel for delivery, today 3900 Wh/kg Practical fuel just (20%) vitality thickness today 760 Wh/kg Practical fuel just (35%) vitality thickness projected 1330 Wh/kg

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Comparison of HOD + PEM to Methanol-based Systems

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M2 Consumer Electronics Demonstrator Prototype Demonstrated at Intel Developers\' Forum, Mar 2005 ~135 Wh/L and ~130 Wh/kg fuel framework Demonstration model – fuel volume non-advanced NBPC scale power (20 W), 3 hr runtime @ 11 W nom 33 Wh scale framework, 245 cc

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Protonex P1 Full System Cartridge connection Demonstrated: > 350 Wh/L and > 350 Wh/kg complete framework 30 W Net Power, >15 Hour Runtime per cartridge 465 Wh net single cartridge just  1.1 L, 1.25 kg

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Energy Cartridge: Interface subtle element 7.9 cm 8.8 cm Fuel/borate zone Electrical Interface Air Filter Catalyst Reactor 16.8 cm Hydrogen Interface Pressure Relief Valve Fill Port Fuel Pump Interface

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Cartridge Testing Fuel Cell Simulator Mimics FC interface Adjusts H2 request Monitors cartridge measurements Over 250 hours of test

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Cartridge Testing – Typical Data

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Cartridge Testing – Start Up Fuel Cell Simulator Start up ~60 s Fuel Cell System Start up ~20 s

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Cold Temperature Cartridge Operation at 20 °C and 5 °C No adjustment in change No adjustment in fuel usage Startup time expanded to ~ 120 s

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Protonex P1 Status and P2 Technology Improvements Achieved! P1 vitality thickness objective for 72 h/30 W mission: 350 - 380 Wh/kg P2 vitality thickness objective for 72 h/30 W mission: 425 - 500 Wh/kg Packaging effectiveness Water recuperation Custom parts Dry SBH fuel cartridges can be blended nearby as required Indefinite stockpiling life Ability to utilize field water to be concentrated on Substantial vitality thickness increment when delivery dry cartridges

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Fuel Cell Portable Power Systems for Military Applications Joint Services Power Expo May 2-5, 2005 Greg Cipriano VP Marketing & Military Development

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Protonex Facts MISSION Focus on applications where energy components bode well Where batteries & IC motors don\'t function admirably Design for execution, manufacturability and cost TARGET MARKET Portable and remote applications High-execution power, 10 – 500 Watts RESULT "Best-in-class" power frameworks versus options Leading measurements and fieldable costs Functional models exist today

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10 Watt 1000 Watt 10,000 Watt Power Range Focus Battery Curve Protonex Fuel Cell Curve Cell Phone Fuel cells do well here PDA Cost/Watt-hr IC Engine Curve Laptop Soldier Power Small Generator UPS Residential Auto

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Fuel Cell Benefits Reduced weight Extended runtimes Reduced size Lower life cycle cost Greater fuel effectiveness Reduced outflows Lower clamor level Lower heat signature VALUE POINTS for Protonex energy component based force arrangements

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Potential Military Applications

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Protonex Military Activity Army Research Office Development program for cutting edge sub-kW stacks, year and a half Army Research Lab Development program for cutting edge DMFC energy unit stacks, 2 yrs Air Force Research Lab Dual Use Science & Technology, year and a half BAO pack power framework utilizing synthetic hydride fuel Naval Research Lab Feasibility showed on UAV power framework, continuous work TARDEC Prototype advancement for versatile robots SOCOM Silent Auxiliary Power Unit just granted Military Primes Multiple joint improvement programs beginning and in examination

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Protonex Stack Breakthrough 20 W ~ 1992 20 W ~ 2003

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Protonex Stacks = Best-in-Class H 2 PEM innovation Compact Lightweight Low Cost Robust Reliable Injection Moldable Patents Pending 3000 Series Family 50-200 Watts Protonex Stacks are Highly Durable

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Stack Life Test 4000 hrs Man convenient target framework lifetime = 2000 hrs operation, Phase I Degradation relates to loss of ~1.5% productivity at 2000 hours

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NGen™ Systems Fuel Cell Power Systems Fuel Cell Stack Balance of Plant Air, Cooling, Controls Fuel System (HW and fuel) Chemical Hydrides Methanol Reformers H2 or Metal Hydrides Protonex Systems are Small & lightweight Efficient & tough Manufacturable Easy to implant in application\'s 30 Watt System Prototype Stack prevalence and effortlessness empower the utilization of accessible equalization of plant parts. Solid frameworks information and capacities permit choice, mix and commercialization of best-in-class fuel advances to convey complete force frameworks to applications.

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System Examples: 30-500W

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System Testing Systems tried - 10 to 50 ° C and 1000 hrs to date

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Industry First 30W System FIRST incorporated synthetic hydride power device framework TODAY: 350-380 Whr/kg and TRL5 Q4 2005: 425-500 Whr/kg and TRL6-7 72 hour mission @ 30Watts nonstop

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Protonex Value Proposition NEED : 30 watts persistent for 72hr mission Protonex Fuel Cell System Systems required: 1 Cartridges required: 6 Total weight: 7.9 lbs Total volume: 4.3 liters Cost/mission: $433 BA5590 Batteries (today) Units required: 13 Total weight: 29.3 lbs Total volume: 11.2 liters Cost/mission: $1,040 Savings: 60% on cost 62% on size 73% on weight Impact: Significantly Decreased Logistics Burden

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Life Cycle Cost Details Lower life cycle cost versus batteries Practical capital expenses <$1500 @ 5K units Low cost COTS and FC segments Design for production concentrate Highly tough, low support Tested 4,000 hrs (10,000 hrs conceivable) Low cost fuel cartridges Chemical hydride is protected, non-combustible Recycle cartridges for preparing Discard cartridges for the fight to come

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Strategic Partners Parker Hannifin – volume mfg of Protonex frameworks and key segments (60 mfg. plants around the world) Millennium Cell – co-create fuel cartridge w/Protonex Dow – volume mfg of Protonex fuel cartridges

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Recent Milestones System models worked from 10 to 500W Over 600 stacks fabricated Life testing more than 4,000 hours Demonstrated incorporated filling framework Multiple joint advancement extends Several prominent military project grants Military assessments in advancement New 12,000 sq.ft. office 9 licenses pending

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Summary - Our Strengths "Best in Class" energy unit power frameworks for OEM\'s Leading item measurements Low framework cost focuses empowering appropriation Strong client center Product situated, not simply R&D NGen™ patent pending innovation Comprehensive suite of vital accomplices Strong military action & bolster Strong private endeavor financing (coordinating $) History of conveying to responsibilities

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Contact Information Greg Cipriano VP Marketing & Military Development 508.490.9960 x208 Protonex Technology Corporation 153 Northboro Road Southborough, MA 01772