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Terrace Conservation and Integrated Landscape Management Ronald C. Smith, PhD NDSU Extension Horticulturist & Turfgrass Specialist Created by Andrea Carlson

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Soil A critical segment in a plant\'s capacity to make due on a site Testing is prudent to decide soil properties: Texture Physical/Chemical Erodibility Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains , USDA Natural Resources

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Soil Texture % of sand, opening, and dirt particles A topsoil, equivalent amounts of sand, residue, mud, is perfect for plant development Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains , USDA Natural Resources

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The Physical/Chemical of Soil Physically, a perfect greenery enclosure comprises of: half Solids Soil, rock, natural matter Organic matter offers supplements, helps with water invasion, maintenance, advances root development 25 % Water 25% Air Chemically: pH measures sharpness/alkalinity of soil Salinity and sodicity measures Ca, Mg, Na salts High saltiness/sodicity might be harmful Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains , USDA Natural Resources

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Soil Erodibility Highly erodible soils, on steep inclines, should have been shielded from wind & water amid site planning & plant foundation Moisture hard to keep up On slants, mulch can lessen issue On blustery destinations, legitimately put plants can help

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Planting Get it right the 1 st time! Try not to plant too profound! Expel stakes after 1 st developing season Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains , USDA Natural Resources

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Bareroot Trees & Shrubs Lowest value Easiest foundation Usually quickest development rate Do not firm with feet! Making Native Landscapes in the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains , USDA Natural Resources

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Wildflowers Extend blossoming season by deadheading Divide each 3-5 years Cut back in late fall or early spring Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains , USDA Natural Resources

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Attracting Birds & Butterflies Flowering plants that pull in butterflies draw in winged creatures also Honeysuckle Juneberry Crabapples Pines (organic product) Flowering tobacco Bee medicine

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Xeriscaping An example outline for a front yard in which the garden has been totally supplanted with dry spell tolerant trees, bushes, perennials, & elaborate grasses

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Nitrogen Depletion, Toxicity, & Acidity: Extra nitrogen might be added to the dirt at a rate of 1 kg (2lb) per 45 kg (100 lb) of wood alteration. On the other hand, sawdust, shavings, & bark might be treated the soil before being added to the dirt Trees with aggressive phytotoxic properties include: Western red cedar White pine (bark) Black walnut Hemlock (bark) Redwood

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Nitrogen Depletion, Toxicity, & Acidity: Bark or sawdust from green, recently processed trees will be more impeding to plantings; hindered development, chlorotic manifestations Reduce poisonous quality by permitting items to drain for no less than 6 weeks Toxic substances typically wrecked by soil microscopic organisms & growths inside a couple of weeks

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Environment Influences Plant Water Use Most water taken up by the plant is lost through dissipation, & components in the earth will speed or moderate the rate of drying that happens Shade Reduces water needs of plant Lowers encompassing air temperature Losses on shady side 25% not exactly sunny side of plant Forest-less water misfortune than solitary tree Humidity In dry air, water vanishes all the more promptly; plants dry all the more rapidly Plants increment dampness by coming to pass Slows the rate of water misfortune from leaves

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Environment Influences Plant Water Use Wind Greatly builds the rate of vanishing from leaves Plants presented to wind dry much quicker that those in quiet air Shelterbelts diminish wind speed & lessen water loss of plants Temperature Plants lose water all the more rapidly on hot days Water uptake is impeded by low soil temps. Evergreens show dieback because of spring drying

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Drip Irrigation The wetting example of dribble water system relies on upon the dirt. Dirt soils: Water tends to permeate both horizontally & descending Sandy soils: Water moves essentially descending

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Drip Irrigation Advantages Easy, generally modest to introduce Less water is required since little is lost to vanishing Energy funds because of lower pumping costs & lower weight Fewer weeds Fertilizer can be connected through lines Plant anxiety is diminished Plant harm because of water effect is decreased Foliage stays dry; less ailment issues

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Drip Irrigation Disadvantages Design arrangement is not too arranged by industry as it is for sprinklers Product irregularity Low level of industry learning Cannot "see" what is occurring beneath wetted surface; may need trust in framework, at first System requires filtration frameworks since emitters can be stopped up with soil, natural particles, green growth Require weight control Lateral lines are helpless against harm from hardware, hoeing, creatures Emitters must be checked consistently Potential for salt collection

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Mulch Summer mulch Apply when soil has warmed to 68°F Suppresses weeds Conserves water Winter mulch Protects perpetual plants Temperature varieties Desiccation from drying winter winds 3-4" Layer prescribed Depth more prominent may restrain gas trade

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USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map North-Midwest U.S. http://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/hzm-nm1.html

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Ornamental Grasses Common segments of scene Add shading, surface, structure, shape Low-support arranging Ground covers Individual inflection or example plants Prairie or glade reclamation Low water & fruitfulness necessities High creepy crawly & illness resistance 1 + periods of interest http://www.arboretum.umn.edu/programs/index.htm

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Ornamental Grasses Establish rapidly Hardy, extreme Reproduce by seed, above-or subterranean stems Various structures Compact & tufted Erect in groups Creeping on the ground surface Spreading- - turf Heights shift from ground-embracing to a few feet tall

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enormous bluestem Andropogon gerardii Full sun Height: 4-8\' Season of interest: June-ice Perennial (Zones 4-9) Copper-red fall shading Prefers very much depleted, ripe soil Tolerates extensive variety of soil sorts Native plant http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/purchaser/factsheets/ornamental_grass

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side oats grama Bouteloua curtipendula Full sun Height: 1 ½-2 ½\' Season of interest: July-ice Perennial (Zones 4-9) Purplish blossoms Oat-like seeds on one side of stem Dominant prairie grass http://ridgwaydb.mobot.org/kemperweb/plantfinder

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Karl Foerster quill reedgrass Calamagrostiss x acutiflora \'Karl Foerster\' Full sun Height: 4 ½\' Season of interest: July-winter Perennial Blooms 2-3 weeks sooner than basic quill reedgrass Stiff, pink, upright blossoms in July, turning beige by August Wheat-like appearance http://www.monrovia.com/PlantInf

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blue sedge Carex flacca Filtered sun, part shade in hot zones Height: 14" Season of interest: June-winter Annual/Perennial (Zones 5-9) May be obtrusive Silver-blue sharp edges Tolerates drier soil than most sedges http://www.monrovia.com/PlantInf

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Elijah blue fescue Festuca cinerea \'Elijah Blue\' Full sun Height: 8-10" Season of interest: Year-round Perennial (Zones 4-10) Buff hued blooms Well-depleted, soggy soil Border plant, groundcover Fast developing http://www.monrovia.com/PlantInf http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/customer/factsheets/ornamental_grass

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pampas grass Cortaderia selloana Full sun Height: 7-10\' Season of interest: Year-round Annual (Zones 7-10) White, 30" crest Tolerates assortment of soils, inclines toward ripe, damp, all around depleted soils Once settled, endures dry season AKA Miscanthus sacchariflorus "Robusta" http://www.monrovia.com/PlantInf

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silver plume lady grass Miscanthus sinensis "" Silberfeder\' Full sun Height: 7\' Season of interest: Year-round Perennial (Zones 4-9) Red foliage in fall turns gold in winter Silver-pink blossoms Variety of soil sorts; all around depleted http://www.gramineae.com/missi.htm

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blue switchgrass Panicum virgatum \'Overwhelming Metal\' Full to part sun Height: 3-5\' Season of interest: Year-round Perennial (Zones 4-9) Metallic blue-dark foliage Moisture tolerant Salt tolerant Loose, expansive, purple-green spikelets http://www.monrovia.com/PlantInf

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purple wellspring grass Pennisetum setaceum "Rubrum" Full sun Height: 3-4\' Season of interest: July-ice Annual (Zones 9-10) Neat bunches of maroon-purple edges Rose-red blooms May require staking Drought tolerant http://www.monrovia.com/PlantInf

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Feeseys structure ribbongrass Phalaris arundinacea \'Feeseys Form\' Part shade Height: 2-4\' Season of interest: June-ice Perennial (Zones 4-9) White & green striped foliage Pink/red foliage in spring Not as intrusive as sp. Endures wet or dry soil, lean towards sodden, very much depleted http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/shopper/factsheets/ornamental_grass

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little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium or Andropogon scoparius Full sun Height: 2-4\' Season of interest: August-winter Perennial (Zones 4-10) Predominant prairie species Blue-green foliage, turns red-orange in fall Variety of soil sorts, with the exception of high fertility& damp soils Common cultivars: "Aldos" \'Minimal Camper\' "Blast" http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/buyer/factsheets/ornamental_grass

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Indian grass Sorghasturm nutans Full sun Height: 5-7\' Season of entomb

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