The 17 th Century.

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Absolutism: What is it?. Sovereign force or extreme power in the state rested in the hands of a kingClaimed to run by perfect rightSovereignty implied the power to make laws, duty, manage equity, control the state
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The 17 th Century Absolutism and the Age of Louis XIV

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Absolutism: What is it? Sovereign influence or extreme power in the state rested in the hands of a ruler Claimed to lead by awesome right Sovereignty implied the power to make laws, assess, direct equity, control the state\'s managerial framework, and decide remote arrangement

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France and Absolute Monarchy: Cardinal Richelieu Chief priest from 1624 to 1642 Major figure of the 17 th century Led France into the Thirty Years\' War in favor of the Protestants "Reason of State"

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France and Absolute Monarchy: Cardinal Richelieu Strengthened and concentrated the influence of the government Eliminated the political and military privileges of the Huguenots, however not their religious rights Limitation of the influence of the honorability The Indendants Financial undertakings

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Cardinal Mazarin amid the Minority of Louis XIV Successor to Richelieu Italian Served 1642 until 1661 Continued the approaches of Richelieu Supposed association with the Queen-Mother

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Mazarin and the Fronde As a nonnative, Mazarin was disagreeable and the nobles saw an opportunity to reestablish their influence first Fronde (1648-49) Led by the Parlement of Paris (nobles of the robe) with the support of Paris Compromise was achieved finishing the contention second Fronde (1650-52) Led by the Nobles of the Sword against Mazarin Wanted him evacuated and their places of influence reestablished Revolt was squashed in 1652 as the NOS started battling among themselves Influence upon the youthful Louis

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Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715) "The Sun King" Reigned from 1643-1715 Longest reign in European history With the demise of Mazarin in 1661, Louis took control over the legislature

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Control of State and Church Louis was an exceptionally scrupulous ruler Kept to a strict routine all through his rule Did not see his obligations as drudgery since he considered his imperial calling as "terrific, respectable, and delightful." Government issues under Louis XIV Key of Louis\' influence was the rebuilding of the focal strategy making hardware into his own court and family Kept the high respectability out of government Most of his pastors originated from the Nobility of the Robe – they were to be subservient to Louis as he said, "I had no goal of offering my power to them." Although Louis had control over the focal approach making apparatus – outside arrangement, war, expenses, and religion – Louis was less compelling in nearby issues

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Religion under Louis XIV Louis had confidence in religious amicability – "One lord, one law, one confidence" This carried him into strife with the Huguenots, as he considered them to be undermining his power 1685 – Edict of Fontainebleau Revoked the Edict of Nantes Ordered the annihilation of Huguenot houses of worship and schools and the change of the Huguenots to the Catholic confidence 200,000 Huguenots fled France regardless of forbiddance Consequences of Louis\' religious strategies

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French Finances under Louis XIV Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683) Sought to build the riches and influence of France through mercantilist approaches Attempted to enhance the nature of French fabricated products to decline requirement for imports and increment trades Founded new extravagance businesses – embroidered artwork works at Beauvais; welcomed Venetian glassmakers to France, and so forth. Drew up directions about specialists, nature of products, charges, advances Improved interior correspondences by building streets and trenches Raised levies on imported merchandise (Dutch & English) and made a shipper marine

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French Finances under Louis XIV Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683) Most of Colbert\'s approaches were not compelling Main issue was that Louis spent more than what Colbert could gather, particularly amid the wars

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Versailles Louis XIV\'s court, which would be last replicated by whatever is left of Europe Originally a chasing lodge that Louis moved into in 1660 to escape Paris which is aversion tremendously; completed in 1688 Versailles filled some needs – home of the ruler, party room for state issues, the focal point of government Life at Versailles was a court service with Louis at the middle Complex court behavior Important: Versailles served as the setting in which Louis controlled and watched out for the upper honorability

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Wars of Louis XIV Central part of Louis\' rule was the craving for transcendence, to build the power and domain of France - must be finished by war Important figure: François-Michel Le Tellier, the Marquis de Louvois Created for Louis a peacetime armed force of 100,000 that could extend to 400,000 in war

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Early Wars The War of Devolution (1667-68) Louis attacked the Spanish Netherlands to case regions for the sake of his significant other Dutch, English and Swedes mediate and Louis sues for peace in 1668 As an aftereffect of the Dutch intercession, Louis turns into their adversary until his passing The Dutch War (1672-78) Louis attacks the United Provinces in 1672 to retaliate for their mediation in the last war and increases some underlying achievement This achievement constrains the HRE, Brandenburg, and Spain to intercede Peace of Nimwegen closures war in 1678, however Louis obtains Franche-Comté from Spain

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The War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697) In 1688, Louis chooses again to get his objectives through war Campaign against the HRE and extension of Alsace & Lorraine French outrages in the Palatinate prompt to the arrangement of the League of Augsburg Bitterly challenged war that goes on for almost nine years conveying starvation and financial sadness to France Treaty of Ryswick finishes war in 1697 Louis is compelled to surrender the greater part of his triumphs in Germany, yet is permitted to hold Strasbourg and parts of Alsace

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The War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714) Last and longest of Louis\' war Reason: Spanish progression emergency Suspicion that the positions of royalty of France and Spain could be joined together, in addition to activities by Louis constrained the formation of another, Grand Coalition against France Progress of the war helps not go in\'s out

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The War of Spanish Succession Famous Battles Battle of Blenheim, 13 August 1704 Decisive triumph for the Allies First real French thrashing in 40 years Battle of Ramillies, 23 May 1706 Battle of Oudenarde, 11 July 1708 Battle of Malplaquet, 11 September 1709 Bloodiest skirmish of the war

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The War of Spanish Succession Famous Figures

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The War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714) Peace of Utrecht closures war in 1713 Philip V stays as Spanish lord, yet royal positions of France & Spain can never be joined Austria picks up the Spanish Netherlands, Milan and Naples England picks up the most – Gibraltar, Newfoundland, Hudson\'s Bay Territory, and Nova Scotia Balance of Power is reestablished in Europe

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Costs of Louis\' wars Louis left France monetarily depleted, almost bankrupt, and enduring the loss of a few thousand of its residents The century long French strength of Europe is softened On Louis\' deathbed up 1715, it was ascribed that Louis said, "I have cherished war too well" and it cost him and his nation beyond all doubt

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Absolutism in Europe: House of Hohenzollern Received the Mark of Brandenburg in 1415 Over the following hundreds of years the family would get region along the Rhine and the duchy of Prussia By the seventeenth Century, the Hohenzollern\'s region, known as Brandenburg-Prussia, comprised of three disengaged ranges in western, focal, and eastern Germany

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Absolutism in Europe: House of Hohenzollern Frederick William the "Incomparable Elector" (1640-88) Restored Brandenburg after the misfortunes of the Thirty Years\' War Recognized that having a solid & viable armed force was fundamental as Brandenburg was a level nation with no characteristic resistances Creates the General War Commissariat to impose charges for and regulate the preparation of his new armed force; the Commissariat then advances into an organization for the common government To help him manage, Frederick William makes an arrangement with the Junkers Elector Frederick III gets to be King Frederick I Frederick III (1688-1713) succeeds his dad and by and large proceeds with his polices His commitment to the ascent of Brandenburg-Prussia: Frederick helps the HRE amid the War of Spanish Succession and consequently was conceded title King in Prussia

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Absolutism in Europe: House of Hapsburg Peace of Westphalia closures the Hapsburg\'s fantasies of a realm in Germany Leopold I\'s Move toward the East Encourages eastbound development, yet is tested by the Turks From 1683 to 1699, Austrians battle the Turks, crushing them in 1697 Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) Austria picks up rest of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia and Slovenia building up the Austrian Empire in south-eastern Europe Multicultural Empire Despite all the new options (the Spanish Netherlands & Italy in 1715), the Austrian Empire never turns into a brought together and absolutist express The Empire remained an accumulation of different regions held together by an individual union – loyalty to the Hapsburg head

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Reign of Peter I, (the Great) 1689-1725 Centralization of Authority 1711 – makes the Senate to oversee the authoritative apparatus of the state while he was away at war Becomes a decision committee, yet Peter includes "universities" to manage particular capacities to counterbalance the Senates beginning ineffectualness 1722 – foundations Table of Ranks Westernization Grand Embassy toward the West Peter acquaints Western traditions and practices with Russia First Russian book of decorum to show Western conduct Shaving of facial hair and shortening of conventional since quite a while ago avoided coats Mixing of ladies Peter\'s Wars

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Conclusion Limits of Absolutism Costs of Louis XIV to France and Europe Eastern Orientation of Austria Rise of Prussia

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