The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect .


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The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect. Climate and Global Change Geoscience Workshop 2002. The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect. Dr. Peter Harley Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions Group Atmospheric Chemistry Division National Center for Atmospheric Research.
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The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect Climate and Global Change Geoscience Workshop 2002 The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect Dr. Diminish Harley Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions Group Atmospheric Chemistry Division National Center for Atmospheric Research The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect Acknowledgments—Thanks for giving slides! Gordon Bonan, CGD, NCAR Alex Guenther, ACD, NCAR Joanie Kleypas, CGD, NCAR Russ Monson, EPOB, CU David Schimel, CGD, NCAR Christine Wiedinmyer, ACD, NCAR The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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IPCC: Impacts of Climate Change The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect Climate Biosphere Effects of Increasing CO 2 on Biosphere (halfway rundown) Changes in plant physiology Changes in higher trophic levels Damage to coral reef biological systems Effects of Environmental Warming (incomplete rundown) Changes in phenology (timing of development/proliferation) Changes in geographic scope of living beings Changes in group structure Damage to coral reef biological communities The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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GAIA: A New Look at Life on Earth ". . . the physical and synthetic state of the surface of the Earth, of the air, and of the seas has been and is effectively made fit and agreeable by the nearness of life itself. This is as opposed to the tried and true way of thinking which held that life adjusted to the planetary conditions as it and they advanced their different ways." James Lovelock, 1979 The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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GAIA – shaping and managing environment? "A marvelous thought came to me. The Earth\'s environment was a phenomenal and temperamental blend of gasses, yet I realized that it was consistent in arrangement over very drawn out stretches of time. Might it be able to be that life on Earth made the environment, as well as directed it – keeping it at a steady arrangement, and at a level positive for living beings?" James Lovelock, 1991 The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Earth\'s Improbable Atmosphere Oxidizing Reducing Inert "If life on Earth stopped, every one of the components in the outside layer, seas and air would respond together until a state near concoction harmony was come to. The planet would turn into a hot, waterless, and cold place." (290 o C) James Lovelock, 1979 Mars Venus Dead Earth O 2 CO 2 CH 4 H 2 N 2 Ar The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Atmospheric Composition (improved) Major gasses 21% Oxygen (O 2 ) and 79% Nitrogen Trace gasses Stable Carbon dioxide , nitrous oxide, methane , hydrogen Global radiation adjust , oxidant sinks Reactive Isoprene , dimethyl sulfide , oxides of nitrogen , ozone Photochemical oxidant creation , oxidant sinks, auxiliary particle arrangement, worldwide radiation adjust , air contamination The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Lovelock\'s GAIA Contribution Whether or not you acknowledge the outrageous adaptations of the GAIA speculation, the distribution of "GAIA, A New Look at Life on Earth" (1979) has impacted the path in which researchers and the overall population see the Earth. It is as yet being fervently 25 years after the fact. Raised awareness! Comprehensive perspective of the Earth. Earth from space. Centered consideration on the part of the Biosphere in Atmospheric procedures Promoted interdisciplinary research (now emphatically bolstered by NCAR) Stimulated research to demonstrate/negate GAIAN administrative components Fostered a frameworks way to deal with Earth Science in which the Earth is seen as a mind boggling framework, with biogeochemical cycling between Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere and Atmosphere with vital cooperations and criticisms between them The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Denver Post July 2, 2002 What if a precious stone ball could advise whether the West is probably going to endure sweat-soaked extends of 90-degree days each late spring? Consider the possibility that that same future forecaster could divine whether water limitations will be a steady for future American agriculturists. Researchers roosted on a Boulder feign are representing those "what if" atmosphere addresses at this moment. Joining powers with atmosphere masters the country over, they have made a PC model that gives them divvy a chance to up the Earth\'s mind boggling atmosphere drivers - air, sea, land and ocean ice - among many rapid PCs to make inquiries about our future. The National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder has made such atmosphere models before. In making the Community Climate System Model , Version 2, NCAR is working with more than 100 atmosphere scientists in twelve colleges and a trio of Department of Energy research labs. The objective: a PC model that catches the Earth\'s atmosphere framework. NCAR groups for atmosphere demonstrate Boulder lab aligns with researchers across the country to anticipate inclines By Diedtra Henderson Denver Post Science Writer The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Satellite-Derived Plant Geography Newest era of Land Surface Models characterize all vegetation as tending to be categorized as one of six general classes. The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Community Land Model Hydrology Precipitation Evaporation Interception Canopy Water Momentum Flux Wind Speed 0 u a Transpiration Throughfall Stemflow Sublimation Evaporation Infiltration Surface Runoff Snow Melt Soil Water Redistribution Drainage Snow River Flow Soil Water Surface Runoff Ground Water Lake Ocean Biogeophysics Sensible Heat Flux Latent Heat Flux Photosynthesis Longwave Radiation Diffuse Solar Radiation Direct Solar Radiation Reflected Solar Radiation Emitted Long-wave Radiation Absorbed Solar Radiation Soil Heat Flux Heat Transfer The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Community Land Model Dynamic Vegetation Sapwood 0 500 1000 0.01 PPFD ( m ol m - 2 s - 1 ) 0 15 30 Temperature ( C) g CO 2 g - 1 s - 1 0 - 10 25 60 Temperature ( C) 0 - 1 - 2 Foliage Water Potential (MPa ) 0 1500 3000 Vapor Pressure Deficit (Pa) 0 500 1000 Ambient CO 2 (ppm ) 6 4 1 2 0 Relative Rate 0 100 Soil Water (% immersion) 0 1 2 Foliage Nitrogen (% ) Foliage Root 0.5 0.3 g CO 2 g - 1 s - 1 g CO 2 g - 1 s - 1 0 - 10 25 60 - 10 25 60 Temperature ( C) Temperature ( C) 8 Relative Rate 1 15 0 30 Temperature ( C) Ecosystem Carbon Balance Vegetation Dynamics Photosynthesis Growth Respiration g CO 2 g - 1 s - 1 Autotrophic Respiration g CO 2 g - 1 s - 1 Litterfall Heterotrophic Respiration g CO 2 g - 1 s - 1 Nutrient Uptake The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Land Surface Model Vegetation Dynamics The model can foresee for every matrix cell the adjustment in vegetation after some time. This illustration is for a solitary lattice cell in Canada, taking after a backwoods fire in year 0. The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect Climate Biosphere Clouds and Precipitation Radiative Effects Absorption at surface Radiatively-dynamic gasses Effects of Biosphere on Climate (halfway rundown) Vegetation influences albedo CH 4 from wetlands, rice paddies, termites, tooting -Role of earthbound biosphere in worldwide CO 2 spending plan -Role of marine phytoplankton outflows on pressurized canned products/mists -Role of VOC discharges in O 3 development Evapotranspiration and precipitation The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Global Radiation Balance (Simplified) Transmitted to space (12) Incoming sunlight based radiation (100) Reflected by air (25) Absorbed by environment and re-emanated back to earth (88) Absorbed by air (25) Reflected by surface (5) Emitted warm radiation (100) Absorbed by surface (45) The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Radiative Forcing Potentials The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect Climate Biosphere Clouds and Precipitation Radiative Effects Absorption at surface Radiatively-Active Gasses Effects of Biosphere on Climate (fractional rundown) Vegetation influences albedo CH 4 from wetlands, rice paddies, termites, fart -Role of earthbound biosphere in worldwide CO 2 spending plan -Role of marine phytoplankton emanations on mist concentrates/mists -Role of VOC outflows in O 3 arrangement Evapotranspiration and precipitation The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Mauna Loa Observatory CO 2 Data notwithstanding reporting the expansive increment in air CO 2 in the course of the most recent quite a few years, these information unmistakably recognize the mark of the earthly biosphere in the yearly CO 2 changes. The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Carbon Cycle The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Global Carbon Budget Atmosphere 750 753 Global Net Primary Production and Respiration Fossil Fuel Emissions Land Use Change Ocean Surface Exchange 5.5 1.6 61.5 60 0.6 90 92 90 Vegetation 610 Soils 1580 Surface Ocean 1020 Fluxes in Gt C y - 1 Pools in Gt C Intermediate and Deep Ocean 38,100 The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Carbon Budget – Terrestrial Sink The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Mauna Loa CO 2 Data – Amplitude Changes Keeling, CD et al., Increased movement of northern vegetation induced from environmental CO 2 estimations. Nature 382:146 (1996). The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Global CO 2 Flux Network Global dissemination of Fluxnet destinations The Biosphere: Climatic Cause and Effect

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Above-Canopy Towers for Measuring Ecosystem CO 2 Exchange Towers are instrumented to quantify prompt fluxes of CO 2 to or from the timberland biological system, utilizing a method called Eddy Covariance or Eddy Correlation. Summed after some time, these m

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