The Case Study .

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Framework of Session. The Case Study
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The Case Study Hugh Willmott Research Professor in Organizational Analysis Cardiff Business School Home Page :

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Outline of Session The Case Study – Features and Relevance Types of Case Study Issues in Case Study Research The Executive Fix

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The Case Study – Features and Relevance

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What is a Case Study? Investigation of normally happening marvels yet might be review One or a little number of examples of a unit of examination e.g. industry, association, division, work aggregate, pioneer, handle (e.g. key basic leadership) May fuse quantitative and also subjective components Especially pertinent for acknowledging procedure and change after some time More or less unequivocally educated by hypothetical system to guide information era and elucidation – deductive/inductive

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Single Case Might be adequate to `test\' a hypothesis that is very much defined Uniqueness of case might be adequate support for considering it Under-looked into regions may require opening up through profundity gave by single case Focus and profundity Multiple Case Possibility of examinations and complexities More assorted materials for creating or testing hypothesis (a few parallels with stratified inspecting) Facilitates investigation of various perspectives or measurements of wonders that are gathered specifically cases Diversity and broadness Single v. Different Cases?

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A Model of The Case Study Process Dotted line is clarified on the following slide Case Study Process . Extricate from R.K. Yin (2003), 3 rd ed., Case Study Research: Design and Methods , London: Sage, p. 50

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The Case Study Process – Feedback Loops `An critical piece of [the figure] is the spotted line input circle. The circle speaks to a circumstance in which a vital revelation happens amid the lead of one of the individual contextual analyses – for instance, one of the cases did not in reality suit the first plan. R.K. Yin (2003), 3 rd ed, Case Study Research: Design and Methods , London: Sage, pp 50-51 What different cases of `feedback circles\' would you be able to consider? (see additionally next slide)

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The Case Study Process – Feedback Loops A moment input circle (not appeared) could speak to the circumstance in which the revelation prompted to reexamining at least one of the review\'s unique hypothetical recommendations Under either situation, thought of "update" ought to happen before continuing further. Overhaul may include the choice of option cases or changes for the situation examine (i.e. information accumulation) convention Without an overhaul you hazard being blamed for bending or disregarding the revelation, just to oblige the first plan This condition drives rapidly to a further allegation – that you have been specific in detailing your information to suit your assumptions (i.e. the first hypothetical recommendations) – an Achilles mend of deductivism.

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When is the Case Study Appropriate (1)? When examining `how\' and `why\' addresses as opposed to `what\' or `how many\' inquiries `… "how" and "why" inquiries are more logical and prone to prompt to the utilization of contextual investigations… as the favored research procedures. This is on account of such inquiries manage operational connections waiting be followed after some time, instead of unimportant frequencies or rate\' (R.K. Yin (2003), 3 rd ed., Case Study Research: Design and Methods , London: Sage See next slide re. Yin\'s cases of coordinating examination system/strategy to an exploration issue

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When is a Case Study Appropriate (2)? - Matching Questions and Methodologies

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Types of Case Study

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Types/Aspects of Case Study Research Descriptive/Exploratory thick, rich records of under-investigated marvels e.g. official basic leadership Evaluative give appraisal of the result of a specific program or method e.g. tqm or bpr Explanatory advancement as well as testing of speculations based upon inside and out point by point examination of theme e.g. presents other option to romanticized and additionally shortsighted or potentially self-serving, (for example, managerialist) types of clarification such difficulties qualified by acknowledgment of impediments of how information have been created and broke down See next slide re. Yin\'s cases of various sorts of contextual investigation

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Extract from R.K.Yin (2004), 3 rd ed, Case Study Research: Design and Methods , London: Sage, p. 4 Example of a Descriptive Case Study Street Corner Society by William F. Whyte (1943/1955) has for a considerable length of time been suggested perusing in the field of group human science. The book is an exemplary case of a clear contextual investigation . 1. It follows the arrangement of interpersonal occasions after some time, portrays a subculture that had infrequently been the point of past review, and finds scratch marvels, for example, the professional success of lower-pay young people and their capacity (or failure) to break neighborhood ties. 2. The review has been profoundly respected in spite of its being a solitary contextual investigation, covering one neighborhood ("Cornerville"). 3. The estimation of the book is, incomprehensibly, its generalizability to issues of individual execution, amass structure, and the social structure of neighborhoods. Later agents have over and over discovered remainders of Cornerville in their work, despite the fact that they have concentrated distinctive neighborhoods and diverse eras.

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What is an Explanatory Case Study? As per Yin, a logical contextual investigation comprises of: `an precise version of the realities of the case some thought of option clarifications of these truths a determination in light of a solitary clarification that seems most consistent with the certainties\' (R.K. Yin (1981), `The Case Study Crisis: Some Answers\', Administrative Science Quarterly, 26: 58-65 refered to in Thomas, 2004, p. 129) Exercise : What may be problematical about Yin\'s detailing?

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Extract from R.K.Yin (2004), 3 rd ed, Case Study Research: Design and Methods, London: Sage, p. 4 Example of an Explanatory Case Study – Allison, 1971 (1) Graham Allison\'s (1971) unique investigation of a solitary case, the 1962 Cuban rocket emergency - in which the U.S.- Soviet Union showdown could have created atomic holocaust - has been a political science success since its production. The book sets three contending additionally integral speculations to clarify the emergency that the United States and Soviet Union executed as sane performing artists, complex administrations, or politically inspired gatherings of people. cont…

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Extract from R.K.Yin (2004), 3 rd ed, Case Study Research: Design and Methods, London: Sage, p. 4 Example of an Explanatory Case Study – Allison, 1971 (2) Allison analyzes the limit of (a) - (c) to clarify the course of occasions in the emergency: why the Soviet Union put hostile (and not simply guarded) rockets in Cuba in any case; why the United States reacted to the rocket arrangement with a bar (and not an air strike or attack - the rockets as of now were in Cuba!); and why the Soviet Union inevitably pulled back the rockets The contextual investigation demonstrates the informative, and not simply spellbinding or exploratory, elements of single contextual analyses. The lessons from the contextual investigation are planned to be generalizable to remote undertakings all the more comprehensively as well as to an entire assortment of complex legislative activities. Along these lines, the contentions of the book, which are much more keenly exhibited in its second version (Allison & Zelikow, 1999), compellingly shows how a solitary contextual analysis can be the reason for critical clarifications and speculations.

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Issues in Case Study Research

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Re. survey plan : `it is imperative to note that poll fashioners should know that, in spite of the fact that they may have an exceptionally dependable measure, it may not really be measuring what it is proposed to gauge: dependability does not really infer legitimacy… " J,Gill and P.Johnson (2002), 3 rd ed., Research Methods for Managers , London: Sage, p118 Validity Issues Internal Validity (The degree to which a technique reveals what it should uncover) How solid are the favored strategies for information accumulation (era? development?)? Predisposition? Interesting to contextual investigations? Difficulty of replication? How conceivable is it outside of, or even inside, a painstakingly controlled trial circumstance? Outer Validity ( The degree to which a finding applies (or can be summed up) to people, articles, settings, or times other than those that were the subject of study) How to sum up? Could be a `outlier\' How attainable is speculation in the sociologies? Ought to the ability to sum up be taken as the essential benchmark of pertinence and esteem? We come back to these issues in Week 9 See next slide re. Bryman\'s remarks on the misconception of the estimation of contextual analyses

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The `Problem\' of Case Study Generalization (1) `There are reason for imagining that the "issue" of contextual analysis speculation involves a misconception of the points of such research. Specifically, this confusion emerges from an inclination to approach a contextual analysis as though it were a specimen of one drawn from a more extensive universe of such cases. There no less than two purposes behind viewing this view as misinformed\' The stand out from overview tests is not all that obvious as contextual investigations regularly analyze an extensive variety of individuals and exercises ( nb studies are frequently based upon nearby as opposed to national populaces) cont…

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The `Problem\' of Case Study Generalization (2) Issue is better framed as far as the generalizability of cases to hypothetical suggestions instead of populaces or universes It might be that `extrapolation\' as opposed to speculation is a more fitting term to the more extensive pertinence of contextual analysis discoveries and translations (A. Bryman, 1988

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