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The Context for the Emergence of the Profession.


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The Context for the Emergence of the Profession Important cultural influences on the emerging sport, fitness, and physical education professions: 1)The decline of religious opposition to sport and exercise. 2)Immigration 3)Industrialization 4)Urbanization
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Slide 1

The Context for the Profession's Emergence Important social impacts on the developing game, wellness, and physical training callings: 1) The decrease of religious resistance to game and activity. 2) Immigration 3) Industrialization 4) Urbanization 5) Transportation and Communication 6) Education 7) Intellectual Climate

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The ascent of current game Allen Guttmann’s model characterizes present day game being recognized by the accompanying: Secularism Equality Specialization Rationalization Bureaucracy Quantification Records

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The ascent of advanced game Another model by Melvin Adelman (1820-1870) recommends the accompanying: Organization Rules Competition Role separation Public data Statistics and records

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The ascent of cutting edge wear The development of advanced game created in Britain and Europe between 1850 –1900. Three specific patterns built up the class' continuation dichotomy moral temperances); the causes of sorted out aggressive game, instead of casual or people sports; and the restoration of the Olympic Games under Baron Pierre de Coubertin in 1896.

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Muscular Christianity T.C. Sanders presumably instituted the term “muscular Christianity” in 1857, however that “ideal of masculinity and the relationship of physical ability with good virtue” were advanced broadly by the works of Charles Kingsley. Sports instruction was energized as good training, a character building background. The objective was not triumph; for sure, ”the instructive estimation of annihilation and failure…. Was the repetitive subject in Victorian England.”

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Muscular Christianity These qualities were played out in the English open (Private) schools at Uppingham, Marlborough and Harrow. The qualities energized incorporated the joining in, and in taking a stab at triumph, as opposed to triumph alone. Rivalry was energized on the ethical grounds that recreations were a readiness forever. These ranges were as per the following: appreciation for others, tolerant perseverance, unflagging mettle, confidence, and discretion, power and choice of character. This type of physical training turned out to be extremely famous in England and the United States from 1850-1900.

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European wearing advancement During this time (1850-1900) there was relative peace in Europe and donning associations were starting to create. Development of University games Popularity of game and thus observers got to be members Development of games clubs National associations and title s create from the clubs. Normal national and universal principles created from this opposition National and worldwide guidelines were recorded.

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Rebirth of the Olympic amusements In Greece in 1859-1889 Evanglesi Zappas held a progression of Greek Olympics. Comparative occasions called Olympics were likewise held in Sweden (1834), Canada (1844), United States (1893) and England for more than forty tears after 1850. Coubertin went to the English Olympics in 1890 and was awed by the standards of the British Public School framework and bemoaned that France was a feeble country because of an absence of activity. Through impressive exertion he composed an Olympic board (of well off men) and held the first Olympics in 1896 on Easter Sunday, in Athens.

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The cutting edge Olympic Games The current Olympic recreations typify the political and social ramifications in game. 1948 London: Japanese and Germans denied their awards. Israel denied passage. Russians did not contend. 1952 Helsinki: The cool war recreations. Russians go after the first run through since 1912. China declined to contend because of Taiwan known as the Peoples Republic of China.

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The cutting edge Olympic Games 1956 Melbourne: The emergency Olympics. Suez Canal, Hungarian attack by Russian tanks, Indochina war, S. Africa politically-sanctioned racial segregation, Rebellion wars in Kenya, and mobs in Poland against the Russians. Netherlands, Spain pulled back over the Hungarian intrusion. China boycotted over the Taiwan issue still. 1960 Rome: Violence in Southeast Asia, S. Korea, Cuban upheaval and uplifted pressure in the middle of America and the Soviet Union with the shooting down of Francis Powers a CIA operators on a mission over Russia on May 1, 1960. The Italians isolated the American and Russian competitors in the Olympic town.

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The cutting edge Olympic Games 1964 Tokyo: Growing inclusion of America in the Vietnam war, the North Korean were approached to return home to come in informal authorized recreations in Indonesia. Severe debate of attempting to have a united Germany. 1968 Mexico City: Political activism of Tommie Smith and John Carlos. S. Africa and Rhodesia where banished from the recreations. Understudy riots from Mexican understudies. 1972 Munich: Vietnam War with China and Russia supplying Hanoi. England was tormented with IRA terrorism. Rhodesia contended under a British banner. The Munich slaughter – eleven Israelis, five Arab terrorists and one German policeman.

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The present day Olympic Games 1976 Montreal: Taiwan issue. New Zealand Rugby voyage through S. Africa. Soviet rebellions. Moscow 1980: US blacklist. Charge exclusion for the USOC for consistence. Los Angles 1984: Soviet blacklist. LA’s business manage the IOC. Seoul 1988: NBC and S. Korea. Security worries with N. Korea. Ben Johnson. Installment from nations for Gold decorations. Barcelona 1992: Dream group. Effective Olympics politically. Atlanta 1996: Commercialism. Medication testing.

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The present day Olympic Games Sydney 2000 A splendid recreations, yet eclipsed by medication allegations. Athens 2004 A move in the right bearing in reference to medication testing. What will Beijing 2008 bring? What are a debates' percentage encompassing the Beijing Olympics?

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The Physical Education Umbrella Spreads In the 1900 - 1920's - Physical Education grasped various developing developments, for example, move, YMCA/YWCA, play areas, entertainment, outside training, game, wellness, wellbeing instruction, and intramural game.

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The Physical Education Umbrella Spreads Writing in 1922 Clarence Rainwater said “ From procurement of little youngsters to that of all ages; from offices worked in the mid year just, to those kept up consistently; from open air gear and exercises just, to both outside and indoor offices and occasions; from congested urban regions to both urban and rustic groups; from generous to group bolster and control; from “free” play and random occasions to “directed” play with sorted out exercises and associated exercises included manual, physical, tasteful, social, and city ventures; from the procurement of offices to the meaning of benchmarks for the utilization of relaxation; from “individual” hobbies to “group” and group activities.”

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after twenty years, George Hjelte detailed five more moves: “From a “play” development to a recreational development; from a neighborhood city just, to a state and national development; from projects disconnected from government funded training, to projects coordinated with the instructive educational modules and framework; from association restricted to urban groups to the comprehensive of rural and provincial territories too; from an association to a great extent under semi open control with appropriations from open trusts to full acknowledgment of recreational administrations as an open function.”

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Brief History of Sport Culture Sociology of Sport Canadian Sport Heroes

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History? Social, political, financial and ideological elements have affected game Issues: sex inclusion, physical instruction, rivalry, hindrances to wind up perceived Distinctive Periods Pre 1840 1918 1961-present

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1789-game club advancement 1840 – beginning date of game in focal Canada Significant improvements and political impacts WWI, WWII Passage of Acts and Bills Fitness and Amateur Sport Act 1961 Beginning of the cutting edge time of game in Canada

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Pre 1840….. Local Indian, Inuit and Voyageurs Utilitarian methodology Organized game – mid 19 th century British troops Influence and vital part on the early improvement of game in Canada Funds for trophies and honors Establish country games Cricket, paddling, olympic style sports, stallion dashing and fox chasing

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Pre 1840’s 1840 – Tandem clubs Toronto, Montreal, Halifax, Quebec Membership (military officers) Foundation of sorted out game advancement Upper white collar class, vast urban zones Social occasion versus procedural rivalry Predominantly WASPS Montreal Curling Club (1807)

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Socially Elite occupied socializing… Working class game intrigues Taverns, cantinas, drinking shanties Billiards, wrestling, prize battles etc… Bull goading, canine battles, cockfighting Excluded contenders Working class tradesman Native, African American, Irish and even Scot Little between city rivalry Travel Only well off could bear to travel Restricted to socially first class

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1840-1918 Canada dependant on hide exchange Upper and Lower Canada Largest urban areas Montreal, Quebec, Toronto and Hamilton 3.5 million populace, 20% urban Urbanization from 1867-1901-1921 Trades got to be critical cultivating, angling and timber

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1840-1918 Advancements… Technological improvement Growth or urbanization Industrialization Changes in game (1840-1918) Transportation Cheaper and exceptional outing rates Sports connection CPR (1885) Communication Morse code 1842 Media and broadcast framework – Bell 1874 Newspaper (mid 19 th century)

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Popular games Lacrosse hockey Cricket Baseball (1870’s) Dr. W.G. Lagers – lacrosse rules JGA Creighton – hockey rules Communication propels – reporting of games results Emergency of national famous people N