The Specious Present \'the brief term of which we are quickly and relentlessly sensible\' JamesSlide 2
Consciousness Time Specious Present = time as it most specifically and unmistakably shows in experienceSlide 3
BUT: presumptive present : especially dubious (& confusing) Does it truly exist? Is it safe to say that it isn\'t dumbfounding?Slide 4
My points: Survey the primary choices + remark on James\' position Isolate some key presumptions spurring the diverse positions Defend a neo-Jamesian origination Counter some late reactions of Sean Kelly\'s Explore a couple of suggestionsSlide 5
Specious Present: why accept? Essential reason: to comprehend our experienceSlide 6
"change itself is something promptly experienced ." (James,WPE) Some progressions = too ease back to ever be seen (development of oak tree). Some are too quick (speeding shot). Some are simply right : we straightforwardly capture them.Slide 7
Seeing movement:Slide 8
Enter SP: \'every one of the adjustments set up of a meteor appear … to be contained in the present.\' (Clay) 1 sec t 2 t 1 So: our direct perceptual mindfulness can\'t be restricted to a durationless momentSlide 9
Further information: \'incredible profundity\' Most basic sensations have some transient profundity Strictly durationless tone = difficult to imagineSlide 10
More by and large: (common) continuous flows are ceaseless every stage is experienced as offering route to the followingSlide 11
A riddle about length: \'a center of around twelve seconds, up to a moment\' (James) We\'re not specifically mindful of what we encountered a moment prior Or even a few moments!Slide 12
(Partially) conceivable finding: James: \'the for all intents and purposes cognized present is no blade edge, however a saddleback\' SP legitimate (e.g. 1sec) Vivid expectations Vivid fleeting recollectionsSlide 13
Retentionalist quick experience of progress happens in a solitary minute presumptive present does not by any stretch of the imagination reach out through time Extensionalist prompt experience of progress is not bound to a solitary minute credible present is spread through time Making feeling of SP: two fundamental modelsSlide 14
Extensionalism: 1 SP probable present B C genuine (clock) timeSlide 15
Extensionalism: surges of SPs progression of tones Pulse rendition (Whitehead, Sprigge) progression of tones Overlap form (Russell, Foster)Slide 16
Retentionalist Model: 1 SP more past B less past Specious present C D E clock time B C D ESlide 17
B C D C D E D E F E F G Retentionalist Model: 3 SPs progression of tones continuouslySlide 18
Retentionalist Model: full radiance progression of tones progressivelySlide 19
James: Retentionalist or Extentionalist??Slide 20
\'Plausible present\' = what James was focused on James = Extensionalist So: recognize \'credible present\' hypotheses from Retentionalist approaches Sean Kelly (late suggestion):Slide 21
James = Extensionalist? stream convention \'span pieces\'Slide 22
James\' Stream teaching encounters brought together by soul-substance (logic) encounters not bound together (induction) REJECT Experience brings together itself, synchronically & diachronically by means of " conjunctive relations\'Slide 23
Conjunctive relations: \'The conjunctive connection that has given most inconvenience to theory is the co-cognizant move , so to call it, by which one experience goes into another when both have a place with the same self. … this feeling of congruity in that most close of every conjunctive connection\'s (WPE)Slide 24
But: James = Retentionalist! \'The information of some other part of the stream, past or future, close or remote, is constantly blended in with learning of the present thing\' Volkmann has communicated the matter splendidly: \'if An and B are to be spoken to as happening in progression they should be at the same time spoke to\'Slide 25
James\' SP chart: immaculate Retentionalism! \'The sentiment past time is a present feeling\' presumptive present B C D E clock time B C D ESlide 26
Diagnosis: In Principles James is pulled in various bearings: Retentionalist when in logical mode Extentionalist when in phenomenological/philosophical modeSlide 27
Terminological Recommendation: \'Plausible Present\' – for any record which ascribes clear transient profundity to encounter E.g. Retentionalism E.g. ExtensionalismSlide 28
Retentionalism: primary supporters Kant Ward James(/2) Lockwood Brentano Broad (L) Husserl DobbsSlide 29
Retentionalism: inspiration (i) Avoid! mindfulness Can we truly be specifically mindful of what lies before? (Then again the future?) Or is hyper vision ordinary? Past Present FutureSlide 30
Retentionalism: inspiration (ii) Simultaneous Unity Thesis (SUT) : to be captured as progressive, substance must be exhibited together in awareness at the same minute viewed as aphoristic by Volkmann, Ward, James, Husserl, DobbsSlide 31
SUT involves RetentionalismSlide 32
Objections to Retention 1: Why aren\'t these accomplished as a harmony, as opposed to a progression? B presumptive present C D E time B C D ESlide 33
Main arrangements: Broad\'s "presentedness" Dobbs\' "gravitas" Husserl\'s maintenances indistinct impossible No matter: regardless it might be feasible for transitory experience to have obvious fleeting profunditySlide 34
Objection 2: phenomenologically questionable Are we truly mindful, at every minute , of a transient spread of substance? I\'m just mindful of what\'s going on now!Slide 35
Objection 3: costly and intriguing Multiplies complete amount of involvement in universe maintenancesSlide 36
Exotic: Dobbs (& Broad): legitimately saw, maintenance model = two-dimensional time Specious present Experiential (broad) time Ordinary (move) timeSlide 37
2-D time understanding = completely legitimized more past B less past worldly interim C D E clock time B C D ESlide 38
2-d time view: powerless Phenomenal time standard time Surprising & vital disclosure? On the other hand unnecessary place?Slide 39
Objection 4: James\' understanding lost? Stream: divided Stream: nearby stages UNIFIEDSlide 40
Extensionalist Alternative?Slide 41
Two Extensionalisms stream Pulse rendition stream Overlap variantSlide 42
Fragments stream … progression of tones BETTER: secures congruity of cognizance progression of tonesSlide 43
Overlap Model: fundamental fixings = Jamesian length square single plausible present Parts spread crosswise over time AND experienced together as a progressionSlide 44
Diachronic co-awareness = straightforwardly experienced progression/tirelessness A B A B Does mean: specifically listening to A-being-trailed by-B Doesn\'t mean: listening to An and at the same time listening to B (i.e. before it has happened !)Slide 45
Diachronic co-awareness: In cognizance together, however as a progression (not all the while = retentional model)Slide 46
Overlap model: from pieces to streams Stream of awarenessSlide 47
Overlap: no (undesirable) duplications D C SP1 D E SP2 F E SP3 Overlapping SPs have basic parts (D in SP1 = D in SP2, and so on)Slide 48
The deviated character of diachronic co-awareness relationship? The inborn character of incredible substance? What clarifies the obvious course of experience? More conservative alternativeSlide 49
Duration-pieces innately changing: movement! movement!Slide 50
Overlap however no \'worldly modes\' (= stark) Jamesian saddleback more past simply past present "we have a steady feeling sui generis of pastness, to which each one of our encounters falls prey" James \'qualities\'/natural propertiesSlide 51
B C D C D E D E F E F G Modes are understandable in Retentionalist Model progression of tones progressively 3 numerically unmistakable encounters - changing properties not an issueSlide 52
Not in Overlap Model: present SP1 D C SP2 D E simply past A solitary affair, at a specific time, can\'t have distinctive and inconsistent inborn properties around then!Slide 53
But: with element substance, worldly modes aren\'t expected to represent saw entry: movement! movement!Slide 54
Extension + (certain structures) of Retention Realistic probable present foresights Fringe emotions & pictures tactile center transient recollections (echoes)Slide 55
Was James an Overlap Extensionalist? On occasion … .Slide 56
A B C D E F G B C D E F G H C D E F G H I \'lingerings of the past dropping progressively away, and the approaches without bounds making up the misfortune\'sSlide 57
Extension/Overlap v. Retentionalism KEY ISSUE Simultaneous Unity ThesisSlide 58
Accepting Overlap = dismissing SUT Non-synchronous D C But bound together: experienced togetherSlide 59
Why acknowledge SUT? James: oblige Kantian knowledge A specific origination of time A magical presumptionSlide 60
James: \'A progression of emotions, all by itself, is not a sentiment progression\' True! Yet, Diachronic co-cognizance CDE C D E C D E Difference can be clarified in Extensional way additionally…Slide 61
second Motivation: a Neo-Rationalist Assumption? Eg: solidarity of awareness requires something SIMPLE (non-developed, sans part) - so a transient spread of substance must be bound together by a non-broadened encountering Question: why trust this?Slide 62
Antidote: a significant spatial simple PHENOMENAL EXPANSE ALL SPATIAL PARTS EXPERIENCED TOGETHERSlide 63
If we dismiss purpose of mindfulness then: Unity a result of between experiential relations (in Jamesian style)Slide 64
IF CO-CONSCIOUSESS CAN CROSS SPACE, WHY NOT TIME? plausible presentSlide 65
Why SUT? 3 nd inspiration Tacit responsibility to presentism?Slide 66
If the truth is this way: No past No future time then Extensionalism ca
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