The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 .


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The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

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Location

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"Trinity and Beyond" Chronology of First Five Nations With Nuclear Weapons 1945 July 16 U.S.  U.S. detonates the world\'s first nuclear bomb, the " Trinity Test\' , at Alamogordo, New Mexico . 1949 August 29 U.S.S.R.  Soviet Union explodes its first nuclear bomb, \'Joe 1\' , at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan . It\'s a duplicate of the Fat Man bomb and had a yield of 21 kilotons. 1952 October 3 UK  First British nuclear bomb, \'Typhoon\', was tried at Monte Bello Islands, Australia , with a yield of 25 kilotons. 1960 February 13 FRANCE  First French atomic test happens at Reganne, Algeria , in the Sahara Desert. " Gerboise Bleue\' had a yield of 60-70 kilotons. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1964 October 16 CHINA  China detonates its first nuclear bomb at the Lop Nor test site on the northeastern edge of the Tarim Basin in the XinJiang Province . It was a uranium 235 implosion parting gadget named "596" and had a yield of 22 kilotons.

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Players : Soviet Side Fidel Castro Premier of Cuba Andrei Gromyko, Minister of Foreign Affairs Nikita Khrushchev Soviet Premier Anatoly Dobrynin Ambassador to the U.S. Raul Castro Head of Military Deputy Foreign Minister

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Players: American Side John Kennedy U.S. President Robert Kennedy Attorney General Robert McNamara Secretary of Defense Dean Rusk Secretary of State

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Causes Soviet Insecurity Missile ability NOT adjusted. Cuban Invasion Bay-of-Pigs-1961, Operation Mongoose-1962. Castro anxious. Develop April 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev imagined putting transitional range rockets in Cuba to give a genuine hindrance to a potential U.S. assault against the Soviet Union or Cuba.

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"Rockets & Machines of War" USN F-8 Crusader SS-4 "Sandal" 1000 km USAF RF-101 SS-5 "Skean" 2000 km USAF U2

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The Missiles: Locations

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The Missiles: Locations

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The Missiles: Aerial Photo 1

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The Missiles: Aerial Photo 2

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The Missiles: Aerial Photo 3

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Blockade: Close-up 250,000 Marines and ground troops 1,000 planes 250 maritime vessels.

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Warning Signs May, 1962 : Khrushchev makes hidden references to a plot (How might the U.S. feel having rockets indicating at them, as they have rockets pointed at us?) September : JFK and Congress issue notices USSR that US will bargain cruelly with any dangers to national security October 14 : U2 recon. flight over Cuba spots destinations introducing atomic rockets… Major Richard S. Heyser October 15 : Presence of rockets is affirmed

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"13 Days" Begin October 16 : President Kennedy informed October 16-22 : Secret considerations on what ought to be done October 22 : Kennedy tells country his arrangement for barricade and isolate October 23 : OAS embraces maritime isolate October 24 : Naval isolate starts and effectively changes course of numerous Soviet boats

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"13 Days" cont. October 25 : One Soviet ship challenges maritime isolate; Kennedy gives it a chance to pass October 25 : At the UN, Adlai Stevenson specifically challenges the Soviet minister to admit to the presence of rockets, when the represetative can\'t, Stevenson wheels out photos of the rocket locales October 26 : Soviets raise plausibility for an arrangement: on the off chance that we pull back rockets will America guarantee not to attack Cuba?

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"13 Days" - conclusion October 27 : Soviets request that Americans additionally pull back rockets from Turkey; Major Rudolf Anderson\'s plane shot down… pressures high Kennedy reveals to Khrushchev that he will acknowledge the proposition of the 26 th , Kennedy advises his sibling to tell the Soviet Ambassador that however the Turkey rockets would not be a piece of the deal, they would be evacuated in time October 28 : USSR consents to pull back rockets

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Soviet Decisions & Motivations Close the Missile Gap Currently a long ways behind U.S. as far as number of rockets Verbal dangers no longer compelling with overpowering proof of U.S. predominance Protect Cuba Reciprocity The U.S. has rockets indicating at us, how about we perceive how they feel now Inability Use the Missiles If let go a rocket, repercussions would be extreme

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Why Khrushchev Settled Effectiveness of maritime isolate Conventional inadequacy in the Caribbean No conceivable countermove Overwhelming world support for the U.S. Other conceivable reasons Got what he needed? No U.S. attack of Cuba U.S. rockets pulled back from Turkey

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Castro\'s Role No genuine part in basic leadership Apparently distant from the circumstance Oct. 26: "Hostility approaching/radicals neglecting world assessment"— Clearly not the case Khrushchev plays along to some degree however it is clear he can\'t help contradicting him… ("your proposal would have begun an atomic world war")

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The American Decision In September Kennedy had expressed and Congress had passed a determination saying that if the Soviet Union set hostile weapons in Cuba we would not endure it. Would we be able to then depend exclusively on discretion? Both Kennedy siblings suspected that John could be "indicted" in the event that he didn\'t act as per his earlier notices Determined in initial 48 hours of emergency that the evacuation of rockets was the essential goal Many alternatives were considered

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The American Decision: Considerations (1) Air Strike On October 17 th , President Kennedy considered that there would be an air strike, in any event against the rocket destinations, and maybe against more extensive targets Reservations from others: air strike might utilize a "heavy hammer" to kill a "fly Later that day Robert McNamara proposes arrangement in the middle of strategy and an air strike (2) Blockade Advocated by McNamara and Robert Kennedy Critics dreaded it would permit Soviets time 10/19, Kennedy acknowledged arrangement

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The American Decision: Considerations (3) Do Nothing Ignore rockets in Cuba. U.S. had army installations in 127 distinct nations including Cuba. U.S. had atomic rockets in a few nations near the Soviet Union. Subsequently, just right that the Soviet Union ought to be permitted to place rockets in Cuba. (4) Negotiate U.S. ought to offer the Soviet Union an arrangement. USSR evacuate rockets in Cuba  U.S. pull back her atomic rockets from Turkey and Italy.

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The American Decision: Considerations (5) Invasion Send U.S. troops to Cuba to oust Castro\'s legislature. Rockets could then be put out of activity and the Soviet Union could no longer utilize Cuba as an army installation. (6) Nuclear Weapons Use atomic weapons against Cuba as well as the Soviet Union.

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Activity 1 As groups, please react to the accompanying Cuban Missile Crisis prompts, with obviously composed, point by point exchanges. Head Khrushchev\'s Letter : Discuss the hidden tone of Khrushchev\'s letter. Depict the line of rationale that Khrushchev utilized as a part of putting forth his defense. At last, what was the Soviet responsibility toward the emergency? Distinguish and talk about .

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Consequences of Cuban Missile Crisis Some of the immediate outcomes of the emergency incorporate the accompanying: HOT LINE The two sides set up an immediate interchanges interface that got to be distinctly known as the Hot Line . It was trusted this would help anticipate unsafe showdowns, for example, the Cuban Missile Crisis emerging once more. (2) U.S. Expels MISSILES Three months after the Cuban Missile Crisis the United States subtly expelled all its atomic rockets from Turkey and Italy .

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Consequences of Cuban Missile Crisis (3) TEST BAN TREATY A Test Ban Treaty was marked between the two nations in August 1963. The settlement denied the testing of atomic weapons in the climate. (4) PRISONERS RELEASED The 1,113 detainees caught amid the Bay of Pigs attack were traded by Castro for $50 million in sustenance, medications, drug and money. (5) USSR RESOLVE The Soviet Union got to be distinctly resolved to have an atomic ability that was equivalent to the United States. This was accomplished by 1972.

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Consequences of Cuban Missile Crisis (6) STRAIN ON SOVIET ALLIES China blamed the Soviet Union for being a \'paper-tiger\' and asserted to be the genuine pioneer of the Communist development. The split between the Soviet Union and China got to be distinctly more extensive . (7) U.S. RESOLVE The United States got to be distinctly persuaded that the Soviet Union would not go to war over another comrade nation. It has been contended this urged the United States to help endeavors to topple communist and socialist governments in Vietnam, Nicaragua and Grenada.

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Activity 1 As groups, please react to the accompanying Cuban Missile Crisis prompts, with obviously composed, nitty gritty dialogs. President Kennedy\'s Address : Discuss the proof of Cuba\'s abilities and President Kennedy\'s general/particular concerns. Depict the basic element(s) re. each of Kennedy\'s Seven-Points. What are the basic messages the president coordinated toward Cubans and Americans at the end of his address?

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Activity 2 As groups, please react to the accompanying Cuban Missile Crisis prompts, with plainly composed, point by point dialogs. Chief Khrushchev\'s Letter : Discuss the fundamental tone of Khrushchev\'s letter. Portray the line of rationale that Khrushchev utilized as a part of putting forth his defense. At last, what was the Soviet responsibility toward the emergency? Distinguish and examine .

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Activity 3 As groups, please react to the accompanying Cuban Missile Crisis prompts, with plainly composed, itemized talks. Were Castro and Khrushchev defended in setting atomic rockets in Cuba? Safeguard . W

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