The European Union s Crisis Management System .


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The European Union’s Crisis Management System . Natália F. de O. Marques Leal University of Kent at Canterbury (UK). Conflict Research Society Annual Conference 2008 “Conflict and Complexity” University of Kent at Canterbury, UK 2-3 September 2008. Introduction. EU’s security role
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The European Union\'s Crisis Management System Natália F. de O. Marques Leal University of Kent at Canterbury (UK) Conflict Research Society Annual Conference 2008 "Clash and Complexity" University of Kent at Canterbury, UK 2-3 September 2008

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Introduction EU\'s security part Concepts CM sources and improvement CM operational record CM structures Decision-production techniques Conc.  A ton still to be done however dynamic endeavors to bless the EU with the important intends to accomplish its aspirations

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EU\'s (sought) part in the worldwide field "This is a universe of new threats additionally of new open doors. The European Union can possibly make a noteworthy commitment, both in managing the dangers and in understanding the open doors. A dynamic and fit European Union would have an effect on a worldwide scale. In doing as such, it would add to a viable multilateral framework prompting a more attractive, more secure and more joined world." (ESS, 2003: 14) EU\'s desire to \'fare peace and security past its fringes\' (Europa)

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EU\'s & CM (Surveys) Worldviews 2002: Europe ought to assume a more dynamic part in world issues (despite the fact that Europeans were primarily worried with local issues). Favored financial and political devices over military instruments (regardless of the eagerness to utilize compel in specific conditions). Transoceanic Trends 2006 : 46% of Europeans felt that "the EU ought to reinforce its military energy to assume a bigger part on the planet." The External Image of the European Union (2007): "the EU is frequently connected with peace-production procedures and security concerns" + emergency administration approach one of its components of uniqueness (despite the fact that EU not broadly known outside its fringes)

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List of accessible CP instruments EU\'s CP tool compartment incorporates "advancement co-operation and outer help, exchange arrangement instruments, social and natural strategies, discretionary instruments and political discourse, co-operation with worldwide accomplices and NGOs, and also the new instruments in the field of emergency administration [inc. regular citizen or potentially military missions ]." + Enlargement! ( http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/cfsp/cpcm/cp.htm )

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CM & CP and the contention cycle Conflict Prevention (CP) the EU\'s activities (both short and long haul) "to address the contention dynamics by tending to auxiliary underlying drivers of contention and additionally the articulations of viciousness. [In this sense,] Conflict avoidance activities can and ought to be composed before a contention (keeping the outbreak), amid a contention (keeping its spread) and subsequent to (preventing its re-rise)." (European Commission) versus Crisis (or struggle) Management (CM) exercises that occur after starting counteractive action has fizzled and a contention has as of now emitted so as to contain both its vertical and level acceleration fleeting security concerns The EU\'s pillared-structure (concentrate on ESDP; second column)

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From Peace Within to Peace Beyond \'Never again\' propose; 1951 (Paris Summit) : ECSC Conflict aversion as the main thrust of the EU coordination handle Internal concern versus outer projection/\'model to send out\'  The foundation of CFSP (1993) and birth of ESDP (1999) End of Cold War + Yugoslavian clash UN - Agenda for Peace (1992) OSCE - Charter of Paris for a New Europe & Conflict Prevention Center NATO - new key idea & augmentations WEU/Council of Europe OAU - Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, and Settlement (1993)

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EU CM: Origins and Evolution (1) 1991/3: TEU  CFSP: "… possible surrounding of a typical guard approach " 1997/99: Amsterdam Treaty  "… dynamic confining of a typical protection strategy " + Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit (PPEWU) 1998: French-British Summit at St. Malo: " the Union must have the limit for independent activity, upheld by trustworthy military powers, the way to choose to utilize them, and a status to do as such, keeping in mind the end goal to react to universal emergencies" 1999: June (Cologne European Council) – foundation of ESDP

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EU CM: Origins and Evolution (2) 1999 June – ESDP + Nomination of Javier Solana December – Helsinki European Council: " coordinating intentionally in EU-drove operations, Member States must be capable, by 2003, to send inside 60 days and support for no less than 1 year military powers of up to 50,000–60,000 people equipped for the full scope of Petersberg errands ." Petersberg Tasks = "helpful and save undertakings, peacekeeping assignments and assignments of battle powers in emergency administration, including peacemaking" (TEU) (NATO) April – Berlin Plus Arrangements: NATO MS "… stand prepared to characterize and embrace the fundamental game plans for prepared access by the European Union to the aggregate resources and abilities of the Alliance, for operations in which the Alliance in general is not locked in militarily as an Alliance. (… )"

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EU CM: Origins and Evolution (3) 2000: June (Stª Maria da Feira) – need zones for non military personnel missions = police, fortifying of the manage of law, reinforcing regular citizen organization, and common assurance 2001: Adoption of the EU Program for the Prevention of Violent Conflicts (Götenborg) 2003: December – A Secure Europe in a Better World , the European Security Strategy 2004: [EU-25] May/June – (military) Headline Goal 2010 + Dec. – Civilian Headline Goal 2008 2005: European Gendarmerie Force 2007: new Civilian Headline Goal 2010 + Treaty of Lisbon

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EU Crisis Management Operations

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EU Crisis Management Operations (2) 2003: January – 1 st ESDP non military personnel mission (EUPM to BiH) + March – 1 st EU-drove military operation in Europe (Concordia to FYROM) + May – 1 st EU-drove military operation outside of Europe (Operation Artemis to Burnia, DRCongo) = 18 missions (12 non military personnel + 6 military), 11 continuous

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Community & Other CM and CP Activities 2001: Feb.– Establishment of a Rapid Reaction Mechanism (RRM) + August – 1 st arrangement of the RRM (Macedonia) 2005: EUBAM Moldova/Ukraine Region and Country Strategy Papers (RSP/CSP) - improvement and outer guide approach Peace-building activities SSR & DDR programs Cross-cutting issues: SALW, landmines, drugs, strife jewels + administration common assets Early cautioning limit + budgetary instruments Work with different associations (UN, AU) 2007: Peace-building Partnerships (PbP)

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1 st column EC 2 nd Pillar CFSP (inc. ESDP) 3 rd column "JHA" EU\'s mind boggling pillared-structure Communitarian versus intergovernmental CM (and CP) not confined to one single column but rather spreads over every one of them ≠ foundations, ≠ basic leadership and financing methodology

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Commission CM Structures

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Council Structures European Council ( Heads of State and Government + President EC) : most abnormal amount of political and key choice GAERC/ERC (Foreign Affairs Ministers+EC) : choices on outside relations, incl. CFSP, ESDP, exchange and improvement collaboration + guarantee intelligibility over EU\'s outside activity COREPER (Ambassadors & deputies+EC) : gets ready Council work and choices

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Council ESDP Structures (2000/01) PSC - Political and Security Committee (Ambassadors & agents) : screens global circumstance in CFSP regions + adds to the meaning of strategies + screens the usage of concurred arrangements + practices political control & vital heading of CM operations CIVCOM – Committee for the Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (MS negotiators/authorities and specialists) : reports to PSC and conveys feelings on regular citizen parts of ESDP EUMC – Military Committee (MS Chiefs of Staff) : preeminent military body inside the Council of the EU/gathering for military interview and participation between the EU MS in the field of CP and CM

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Council Secretariat Structures HR/SG: helps the Council in remote approach matters, through adding to the definition, readiness and execution of European strategy choices DGE VIII – Defense Affairs DGE IX – Civilian Crisis Management SG/HR Private Office – figures strategy on CFSP matters + different assignments PPEWU – Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit EUMS – Military Staff (backed military and non military personnel specialists) : performs early cautioning, circumstance evaluation and vital arranging of Petersberg errands [… ] and all EU-drove operations CPCC (Council authorities and supported specialists) - compelling arranging and direct of non military personnel ESDP emergency administration operations, and additionally the correct usage of all mission-related undertakings

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Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC)

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Conclusion (1) High aspirations versus no particular structures Considerable advancement since 1999, at an astonishing pace (structures + operations + capacities) Intergovernmental character of ESDP shields it from inward political emergencies inside the EU

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Conclusion (2) Internal competitions (between and intra-column) Civilian versus military structures The Secretariat\'s energy Most choices taken by national authorities – absence of majority rule authenticity? Rationality and consistency; \'ability desire hole\' versus Developing desires Treaty of Lisbon

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