The Faculty of Language .

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The Personnel of Dialect. Experiences from People Bits of knowledge from Creatures. Questions. Why have just people added to this capacity to convey vocally? Motivations to convey vocally. Do different creatures that impart vocally have a Broca's zone? Why do parrot's sound more human than chimps?.
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The Faculty of Language Insights from Humans Insights from Animals

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Questions Why have just people built up this capacity to convey vocally? Motivations to impart vocally. Do different creatures that convey vocally have a Broca\'s range? Why do parrot\'s sound more human than chimps?

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The Evidence All people learn dialect Only people learn dialect Human dialects have basic properties Linguistic Universals Humans learn dialects a similar way.

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Communication v Structure Do different species obviously convey? Yes! Cases Chimps, Birds, The question is how do different species convey? Do they impart an indistinguishable route from people? Look at the arrangement of correspondence.

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A Semiotic approach: Chimps v. people Purpose: understanding ourselves The representational level phonemes v. signals The lexical level The strategy level A cabs, parataxis, language structure.

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Humans Development of the Vocal Tract Cooing Babbling Phonological Development Chimps Vocal Tract more constrained Cannot create the scope of human sounds. Gardner and Gardner created Sign Lg. Representational Systems

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Lexical Development

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Tactic stages What are the strategy stages? Ataxis, parataxis, grammar Ataxis is the single word stage.

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Humans Brenda: Car. Auto. Auto. Auto. ( articulated [ka]) Scollon: What? Brenda: Go. Go. Scollon: (Undecipherable.) Brenda: Bus. Transport. Transport. Transport. Transport. Transport. Transport. Transport. (articulated [baish]) Scollon: What? Goodness, Bicycle? Is that what you said? Brenda: Not. ([na]) Scollon: No? Brenda: Not. Scollon: No. I missed the point. Chimps Evidence of Washoe learning 130 Signs. What did Washoe Learn? Lexical Signs

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Humans Brenda: Tapecorder. Utilize it. Utilize it. Scollon: Use it for what? Brenda: Corder talk. Brenda Talk. Give me a chance to utilize the taperecorder to talk into. Chimps Parataxis

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Case Relationship eat Nim activity specialist eat grape activity question eat tickle two suggestions sustenance Nim protest recipient nourishment there activity put Nim out operator activity out shoe activity protest out pants activity protest

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Case Relations These case connections distinguished in chimps are fundamentally the same as the ones found in the kid paratactic arrange and in grown-up sentence structure. What of it?

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Nim\'s 16 word "sentence"

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Syntactic Signs and Parts of Speech

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There is next to no confirmation to bolster the chimp\'s capacity to create a sentence. In any case, there is great confirmation to recommend that chimps can comprehend syntactic explanations. Put the shoe in the glass. Put the container in the shoe. Language structure v. Parataxis

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All human dialects learn dialect. Why? Two Positions The empiricist (Skinnerian) is the more seasoned view The realist (Chomskian) View (since the 50s) Basic Differences Role of brain: dynamic v detached Intelligence for dialect: dialect particular v. general insight.

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Context Generalization. The rule of setting speculation is that kids take in the idea of syntactic classification on the premise of the word\'s position in the sentence. Along these lines in the main arrangement of cases, youngsters can presume that the things: ball; house; auto and doll, all have a place with a similar class. I see the ball. I see the house. I see the auto. I see the doll. I see the _____

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Criticism of Context Generalizaztion John is anything but difficult to satisfy. John is anxious to satisfy. It is anything but difficult to please John. *It is anxious to please John. To please John is simple. *To please John is excited.

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Humans must have a knowledge for dialect. Chomsky contended for dialect particular knowledge. The securing of dialect at an early age. Chomsky contended for Universal Grammar as an arrangement of rule that were somehow available to the learner. Clarified a few things: Early age Language Universals

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Where do universals originate from? Inborn thoughts. Physiological outcomes (vocal tract). . . .

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The topic of why are there discrete stages? Why to youngsters (and chimps) go through similar stages? Skinner: Didn\'t address the subject. Chomsky: Ducked the issue Piaget : Constructivist View.

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There are many intriguing inquiries that can be raised about the improvement of frameworks of basic portrayals amid the time of dialect obtaining. It is conceivable this may be genuinely moderate. There is, for instance, some confirmation that youngsters have a tendency to hear significantly more phonetically than grown-ups. There is no motivation to hop to the conclusion this is just a question of preparing and experience; it might just have a maturational premise. Moreover, a significant part of the proof pertinent to the development of the hidden frameworks of portrayal may not be accessible in the early phases of dialect obtaining. These are open inquiries, and it is trivial to conjecture about them any further. They merit cautious observational review not just in light of the central significance of the subject of "psychological reality" of etymological builds, additionally for pragmatic reasons; for instance, as for the issue of the instructing of perusing. These further points, be that as it may, lie past the extent of this book. Chomsky, The Sound Pattern of English , 1968:50

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The Constructivism of Jean Piaget Children develop their comprehension of the world by including maxims: The guideline of the changelessness of a protest. The protection of solids and fluids.

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Can constructivism address the subject of strategy stages? The stage like advancement of youngsters is practically equivalent to the phases of strategy improvement. This would imply that each stage includes the development of another maxim. What sayings could be proposed with ataxis, parataxis and language structure?

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Possible maxims Ataxis Principle of the sign (Saussure). Parataxis: The linkage of the two signs utilizing a case like relationship. Linguistic structure: the advancement of Parts of Speech. (There are others (e.g. the representational sign)

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So how does this help us clarify the widespread sequencing and dialect universals? Sequencing? Universals?

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So what? Looking at people and chimps can enhance our comprehension of the way of human dialect. These correlations may motivate us to reevaluate neglected inquiries (e.g.,what is sentence structure?). They may request that we take a gander at things in an unexpected way (e.g., the constructivist see)

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Exam Questions Using the adjoining graph as a guide, offer 5 bits of knowledge that you have experienced in this class which help you better comprehend human dialect. It would be ideal if you number the focuses and confine yourself to a solitary page. Ensure your name is on the paper.

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