The Future Role of Biofuels in Achieving American Energy Independence .

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The Future Role of Biofuels in Achieving American Energy Independence. Christine Zeivel Energy Law Spring 2007 Professor Bosselman. What are Biofuels?. a combustible fuel produced from any sort of vegetation (“biomass”) 3 MAIN TYPES: Bioethanol Biodiesel Purified biogas.
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The Future Role of Biofuels in Achieving American Energy Independence Christine Zeivel Energy Law Spring 2007 Professor Bosselman

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What are Biofuels? an ignitable fuel delivered from any kind of vegetation ("biomass") 3 MAIN TYPES: Bioethanol Biodiesel Purified biogas

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Source: Energy Information Administration

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History Production activated by 1970s oil stuns Ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil Ethanol from corn in U.S. Developed quickly until stagnation in 1990s Oil cost increments after 2000 re-empowered creation

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Current Usage 2005: 2% of worldwide gas use Ethanol Production 2000: 4.6 billion gallons 2005: 12.2 billion gallons Biodiesel Production 2000: 251 million gallons 2005: 790 million gallons

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Ethanol Mainly delivered by aging sugar or starch bits of crude farming material (sugar beets, sugar stick) Starch (corn) – changed over into sugar Cellulose (trees & grasses) – more hard to change over to Sugar & starch originate from fuel or vitality crops shifting by district

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Ethanol Production Process Grind up feedstock so more effortlessly & immediately prepared Sugar is broken down out of the material Sugar nourished to microorganisms that utilization it for sustenance, delivering ethanol & carbon dioxide in the process Purify ethanol to craved fixation

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Current U.S. Utilization Blended with gas (lessens mileage by 2% - 30 mpg = 29.4 mpg) E10 most normal mix E85 requires Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) E85 is a main US elective fuel 3.5 million cars that can keep running on E85 fuel apprx. 1000 open refueling destinations 2004: 3.4 billion gallons from 32 million tons of corn, 11% of collect 2007: 116 refineries, 90 slated for development 2% of transportation needs

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U.S. Ethanol Policy 51¢/gallon appropriation CAA 1990 alterations required offer of oxygenated fills in zones with unfortunate CO levels = increment E85 & mixes with higher centralizations of ethanol qualify as option powers under the EPA of 1992

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Illinois Ethanol Policy Sales & utilize charges don\'t make a difference to ethanol-mixed energizes (containing in the vicinity of 70% and 90% ethanol) sold between July 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Will apply to 100% of continues from deals a great many. 35 ILCS 120/2-10; 35 ILCS 105/3-10

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Chicagoland Area E85 Pumps

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Advantages of Ethanol Less poisonous, less hazard from spills "Carbon Neutral" – same measure of CO2 discharged is retained amid development handle Easily coordinated into current transportation framework can mix up to 10% w/fuel (E10) Modified motors (FFVs) can take up to 85% ethanol (E85)

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Advantages of Ethanol Energy effective – yields 25% more vitality than utilized as a part of corn creation developing corn, collecting, refining into ethanol Decreased fossil vitality input Gasoline: 1.23 million BTU/I million BTU conveyed Ethanol: .78 million BTU/1 million BTU conveyed

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Future of Ethanol Industry set for 160% expansion in next 2 years 116 existing U.S. ethanol-fuel refineries utilize 53 million tons of corn ability to deliver more than 5.6 billion gallons every year. 80 refineries are under development & 7 are extending Boost request to 139 million metric huge amounts of corn include more than 6 billion gallons of limit when finish USDA predicts corn land will expand over 15% in 2008 than in 2007

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Is Ethanol the reply? CATO Institute "Ethanol won\'t prompt to vitality freedom. In the event that all the corn delivered in America in 2005 were committed to ethanol creation (and just 14.3% of it was), U.S. fuel utilization would have dropped by just 12%. For corn ethanol to totally dislodge gas in this nation, we would need to proper all U.S. cropland, turn it over to ethanol creation, and after that find 20% more arrive on top of that."

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And on top of it… . Normal top off of a 25 gallon SUV gas tank with ethanol requires same measure of grain as it takes to sustain 1 individual for 1 year. Each individual in the US utilizes 500 gallons of fuel for each year. That implies that each American would utilize enough gas to encourage 20 individuals through the span of the year. There are 300 million individuals in the US, and 300 million individuals, every utilizing enough sustenance to encourage 20 individuals to run their autos, would require enough grain to bolster 6 billion individuals. "So practically, we are not examining supplanting 75% or half of our transported in oil with biodiesel or ethanol – period. It isn\'t conceivable. What\'s more, on the off chance that we are discussing a more sensible number, similar to 10-15%, that can just occur with arrangement programs intended to make, empower, and maybe require protection."

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But affect on different enterprises? USDA has said that meat supply will fall this year in view of high cost of sustain Beef, pork & chicken is relied upon to decay by 1 billion pounds Typically, meat creation in the United States ascends by around 2% a year, yet weight from American ethanol makers has sent the value taking off to $4 a bushel

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Biodiesel 2 strategies used Fuel – "Slick" biodiesel is 100% Fuel added substance – "Biodiesel mix" is flawless biodiesel mixed with petrodiesel (Bxx)

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Biodiesel Production Made from: straight vegetable oil squander cooking oil creature oil & fat Transesterification – handle used to deliver biodiesel by isolating the glycerin from the fat or vegetable oil methyl esters (concoction name for biodiesel) glycerin (important repercussion generally sold to be utilized as a part of cleansers and different items)

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Biodiesel Basics Largest conceivable wellspring of oils = oil yields, for example, rapeseed, palm or soybean Soy main impetus b/c limit, surpluses, & declining costs BUT costly Currently, squander oils (oil) & fats biggest source since they are FREE Not recently crude vegetable oil! Needs to meet strict industry norms Have to enroll with EPA

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Algae – "Green Gold?" Currently being produced 30 times more oil for each section of land than current harvests utilized no sulfur non-harmful profoundly biodegradable not subject to an item hazard as is raw petroleum, corn & soybeans.

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Biodiesel is endorsed for use in U.S. Enlisted as a fuel & fuel added substance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Meets clean diesel measures set up by the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Flawless biodiesel assigned as an option fuel by DOE & DOT. Just option fuel to completely entire wellbeing impacts testing prerequisites of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

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U.S. Biodiesel Policy – EPA of 2005 Small Agri-Biodiesel Producer Tax Credit volumetric based wage charge credit for the creation of agri-biodiesel – $.10/gallon (biodiesel produced using first-utilize vegetable oils and first-utilize creature fats) Alternative Fuel Refueling Infrastructure Tax Credit assess credit for establishment of certain qualifying powering foundation that administer elective fuel, including biodiesel mixes B20 and higher.

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U.S. Biodiesel Policy Biodiesel Excise Tax Extends the duty credit for biodiesel makers set up in 2004 through 2008. $.50/gallon of waste-oil biodiesel $1.00 for agribiodiesel. On the off chance that utilized as a part of a blend, $.01/rate purpose of agribiodiesel utilized or $.005/rate purpose of waste-oil biodiesel. Customer Credits Income Tax Credit for encouraged assessment paid

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Illinois Biodiesel Policy Sales & utilize charges apply to 80% of continues from the offer of biodiesel-mixed fills made between July 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Deals & utilize charges don\'t make a difference to the returns from offer of biodiesel mixes containing over 10% biodiesel made. Charges apply to 100% of the returns from deals made from there on. 35 ILCS 120/2-10

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National Biodiesel v. Diesel Prices

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Current U.S. Use 2005: EPA Act 75 million gallons (versus 62 billion diesel fuel) Tripled in 1 year (25 million gallons in 2004) End of 2006 105 creating plants 77 more slated for development in next 1 ½ years accessible at more than 1,000 pumps

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Current U.S. Utilization National Biodiesel Board predicts 150 million gallons in 2007 More than 300 noteworthy armadas U.S. Postal Service U.S. Depts of Defense, Energy & Agriculture Transit specialists, schools, parks

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Chicagoland Biodiesel Pumps

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Advantages of Biodiesel Safe to handle, store & transport Less dangerous, less hazard from spills Higher glimmer rate = more secure in a crash "Carbon Neutral" - same measure of CO2 transmitted is retained amid development prepare But different discharges amid process = 78% decrease in CO2 through life cycle (slick) = 15% diminishment in CO2 through life cycle (B20) = 35% lessening in CO through life cycle

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Advantages of Biodiesel Reduces different poisons 35% decrease in unburned hydrocarbons through life cycle – brown haze & ozone forerunner 8% decrease in sulfur oxides – corrosive rain 3% decrease in methane 32% diminishment in particulate matter (PM10 68%) 83.6% decrease in PM residue 79% diminishment in wastewater 96% lessening in unsafe waste, yet twofold non-perilous waste

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Future of Biodiesel Most significant auto makers offer FFVs running on E85 where it is prominent Japan South Korea DaimenChrysler & Volkswagon taking a shot at "SunDiesel" produced using crops developed particularly for vitality utilize (willow), squander wood & other plant material GHG & different contaminations lessened up to 90% Manufacture autos when tech created to deliver enough fuel

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Is Biodiesel the Answer? Contextual investigation: North Carolina Zoo Fuel for cable cars, transports, trucks, tractors & gear Restaurants give around 1500 gallons of utilized oil Current limit can create 1500 gallons of immaculate B100 or 7,500 gallons of B20 mix annually  Enough B20 to meet

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