The Historical backdrop of Prehistoric studies.

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Late19th century, exploratory paleohistory creates in Europe and America ... American Archeology. Concerned at first w. Local Americans (as far back as Thomas ...
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The History of Archeology

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Archeology is a youthful Science Product of Western Civilization Scientific clarification of past, versus mythic past, oral histories, and so on eighteenth and nineteenth century sources Enlightenment Movement in Europe (utilization of reason and science to clarify common world; evaluate of beforehand acknowledged thoughts passed on from days of yore) No antiquated antecedent science Different from science, theory, stargazing, arithmetic – no Classical simple Has become quickly and is overall today Practiced in each industrialized country National Past, utilized for saving legacy Also utilized for political reasons

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Four Prerequisites for Archaeology 1) Recognition that the Past exists Western idea of straight time Seems normal to us, yet non just probability Allows for circumstances and end results; change after some time Concept of advancement/improvement Many non-western societies consider time to be recurrent No starting or end, simply perpetual reiteration of patterned occasions Example: Mesoamerican developments (Maya, Aztec) Continuous cycles of creation and demolition of world Dual logbooks; 52 year cycle

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Four Prerequisites for Archaeology 2 ) Interest in the previous 18 th/mid 19 th century Antiquarianism – started European interest Antiquarianism: enthusiasm for old workmanship and engineering (outlandish, magnificence, irregularity) Pompeii and Herculaneum (Neoclassical development) Napoleon\'s Invasion of Egypt Looting of Classical world by Europeans Elgin Marbles North America: Moundbuilder question Thomas Jefferson

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Four Prerequisites for Archaeology 3) Recognition that past was quite a while Contradicts Bible (4004 B.C. Beginning) Extinct creatures w. apparatuses (Boucher de Perthes) People had been around sufficiently long for a few creatures to go wiped out Neanderthal skull (1856) Sufficient time for a few sorts of people to go wiped out Developments in Geology: Uniformitarianism (Charles Lyell) Huge measures of time vital for arrangement of geologic elements through watched forms Previous confidence in "catastrophism" Darwin/Wallace and Evolution

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Four Prerequisites for Archeology 4) Past can be researched by unearthing Jens Worsaee: Stratigraphy Adoption of idea from geography Idea that layers of soil develops after some time; further you burrow, the more established stuff gets Christian Thompson: Seriation Idea that the articles utilized by old people groups changed over the long run 3 Age System (Stone Age; Bronze Age, Iron Age) Stratigraphy + Seriation = capacity to frame sequences (change over the long run) But just relative dates… no outright dates

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Development of Archeology Late19th century, investigative paleontology creates in Europe and America Developed distinctively because of neighborhood concerns American Archeology Concerned at first w. Local Americans (as far back as Thomas Jefferson) Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) Part of Anthropology European Archeology Concerned at first w. Traditional World (Greece, Rome) and educated social orders (w. Composing) Associated w. History, not w. Human studies Antiquarianism continues today (Antiquities Trade)

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Development of Archeology How to clarify change after some time? Mid 20 th Century Descriptive Period (Culture Historical Approach) Exploring scope of variety in archeological record, without much regard for clarification Diffusionism and Migration: major logical systems Middle 20 th Century Evolutionary Period (Processual Approach) Use of Evolutionary ideas to clarify change in archeological record Changes in material culture regularly clarified by changes in the earth Late 20 th Century Critical Period (Post-Processual Approach) Criticism of past ways to deal with clarification as shortsighted and fragmented Use of social clarifications for changes in material (society changes for its own reasons, not in view of ecological elements)

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